Chapter 2.7


Class 7 - Radioactive material

Note:
For class 7, the type of packaging may have a decisive effect on classification.
2.7.1
Definitions
2.7.1.1
Radioactive material means any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the consignment exceed the values specified in 2.7.2.2.1 to 2.7.2.2.6.
2.7.1.2

Contamination

Contamination means the presence of a radioactive substance on a surface in quantities in excess of 0.4 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low-toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.04 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters.

Non-fixed contamination means contamination that can be removed from a surface during routine conditions of transport.

Fixed contamination means contamination other than non-fixed contamination.

2.7.1.3

Definitions of specific terms

A1 and A2

  • A1 means the activity value of special form radioactive material which is listed in the table in 2.7.2.2.1 or derived in 2.7.2.2.2 and is used to determine the activity limits for the provisions of this Code.

  • A2 means the activity value of radioactive material, other than special form radioactive material, which is listed in the table in 2.7.2.2.1 or derived in 2.7.2.2.2 and is used to determine the activity limits for the provisions of this Code.

Fissile nuclides means uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium-239 and plutonium-241. Fissile material means a material containing any of the fissile nuclides. Excluded from the definition of fissile material are the following:

  1. natural uranium or depleted uranium which is unirradiated;

  2. natural uranium or depleted uranium which has been irradiated in thermal reactors only;

  3. material with fissile nuclides less than a total of 0.25 g;

  4. any combination of .1, .2 and/or .3.

These exclusions are only valid if there is no other material with fissile nuclides in the package or in the consignment if shipped unpackaged.

Low dispersible radioactive material means either a solid radioactive material or a solid radioactive material in a sealed capsule, that has limited dispersibility and is not in powder form.

Low specific activity (LSA) material means radioactive material which by its nature has a limited specific activity, or radioactive material for which limits of estimated average specific activity apply. External shielding materials surrounding the LSA material shall not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity.

Low toxicity alpha emitters are: natural uranium; depleted uranium; natural thorium; uranium-235 or uranium-238; thorium-232; thorium-228 and thorium-230 when contained in ores or physical and chemical concentrates; or alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 10 days.

Specific activity of a radionuclide means the activity per unit mass of that nuclide. The specific activity of a material shall mean the activity per unit mass of the material in which the radionuclides are essentially uniformly distributed.

Special form radioactive material means either:

  1. an indispersible solid radioactive material; or

  2. a sealed capsule containing radioactive material.

Surface contaminated object (SCO) means a solid object which is not itself radioactive but which has radioactive material distributed on its surface.

Unirradiated thorium means thorium containing not more than 10-7 g of uranium-233 per gram of thorium-232.

Unirradiated uranium means uranium containing not more than 2 x 103 Bq of plutonium per gram of uranium-235, not more than 9 x 106 Bq of fission products per gram of uranium-235 and not more than 5 x 10-3 g of uranium-236 per gram of uranium-235.

Uranium - natural, depleted, enriched means the following:

Natural uranium means uranium (which may be chemically separated) containing the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes (approximately 99.28% uranium-238, and 0.72% uranium-235 by mass).

Depleted uranium means uranium containing a lesser mass percentage of uranium-235 than in natural uranium.

Enriched uranium means uranium containing a greater mass percentage of uranium-235 than 0.72%.

In all cases, a very small mass percentage of uranium-234 is present.

2.7.2
Classification
2.7.2.1
General provisions
2.7.2.1.1

Radioactive material shall be assigned to one of the UN numbers specified in table 2.7.2.1.1, in accordance with 2.7.2.4 and 2.7.2.5, taking into account the material characteristics determined in 2.7.2.3.

Table 2.7.2.1.1 - Assignment of UN Numbers
UN Numbers Proper shipping namea and description
Excepted packages
(1.5.1.5)
2908 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - EMPTY PACKAGING
2909 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM NATURAL URANIUM or DEPLETED URANIUM or NATURAL THORIUM
2910 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - LIMITED QUANTITY OF MATERIAL
2911 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - INSTRUMENTS or ARTICLES
3507 URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE less than 0.1 kg per package, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb, c
Low specific activity radioactive material
(2.7.2.3.1)
2912 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSA-I), non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3321 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSA-II), non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3322 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSA-III), non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3324 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSA-II), FISSILE
3325 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSA-III), FISSILE
Surface contaminated objects
(2.7.2.3.2)
2913 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS (SCO-I or SCO-II), non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3326 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS (SCO-I or SCO-II), FISSILE
Type A packages
(2.7.2.4.4)
2915 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, non-special form, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3327 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, FISSILE, non-special form
3332 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, SPECIAL FORM, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3333 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, SPECIAL FORM, FISSILE
Type B(U) package
(2.7.2.4.6)
2916 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(U) PACKAGE, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3328 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(U) PACKAGE, FISSILE
Type B(M) package
(2.7.2.4.6)
2917 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(M) PACKAGE, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3329 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(M) PACKAGE, FISSILE
Type C package
(2.7.2.4.6)
3323 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE C PACKAGE, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3330 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE C PACKAGE, FISSILE
Special arrangement
(2.7.2.5)
2919 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TRANSPORTED UNDER SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3331 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TRANSPORTED UNDER SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT, FISSILE
Uranium hexafluoride
(2.7.2.4.5)
2977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, FISSILE
2978 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb
3507 URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE less than 0.1 kg per package, non-fissile or fissile-exceptedb, c

a The proper shipping name is found in the column "proper shipping name and description" and is restricted to that part shown in capital letters. In the cases of UN Nos. 2909, 2911, 2913 and 3326, where alternative proper shipping names are separated by the word "or", only the relevant proper shipping name shall be used.

b The term "fissile-excepted" refers only to material excepted under 2.7.2.3.5.

c For UN 3507, see also special provision 369 in chapter 3.3.

2.7.2.2
Determination of activity level
2.7.2.2.1

The following basic values for individual radionuclides are given in table 2.7.2.2.1:

  1. A1 and A2 in TBq;

  2. Activity concentration limits for exempt material in Bq/g; and

  3. Activity limits for exempt consignments in Bq.

Table 2.7.2.2.1 - Basic radionuclides values for individual radionuclides
Radionuclide (atomic number) A1 A2 Activity concentration limit for exempt material Activity limit for an exempt consignment
(TBq) (TBq) (Bq/g) (Bq)
Actinium (89)
Ac-225 (a) 8 x 10-1 6 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
Ac-227 (a) 9 x 10-1 9 x 10-5 1 x 10-1 1 x 103
Ac-228 6 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Silver (47)
Ag-105 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Ag-108m (a) 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 106 (b)
Ag-110m (a) 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Ag-111 2 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Aluminium (13)
Al-26 1 x 10-1 1 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Americium (95)
Am-241 1 x 101 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 104
Am-242m (a) 1 x 101 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 (b) 1 x 104 (b)
Am-243 (a) 5 x 100 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 (b) 1 x 103 (b)
Argon (18)
Ar-37 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 106 1 x 10⁸
Ar-39 4 x 101 2 x 101 1 x 107 1 x 104
Ar-41 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 109
Arsenic (33)
As-72 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
As-73 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
As-74 1 x 100 9 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
As-76 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
As-77 2 x 101 7 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Astatine (85)
At-211 (a) 2 x 101 5 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 107
Gold (79)
Au-193 7 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Au-194 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Au-195 1 x 101 6 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Au-198 1 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Au-199 1 x 101 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Barium (56)
Ba-131 (a) 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Ba-133 3 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Ba-133m 2 x 101 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Ba-140 (a) 5 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 105 (b)
Beryllium (4)
Be-7 2 x 101 2 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Be-10 4 x 101 6 x 10-1 1 x 104 1 x 106
Bismuth (83)
Bi-205 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Bi-206 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Bi-207 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Bi-210 1 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Bi-210m (a) 6 x 10-1 2 x 10-2 1 x 101 1 x 105
Bi-212 (a) 7 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 105 (b)
Berkelium (97)
Bk-247 8 x 100 8 x 10-4 1 x 100 1 x 104
Bk-249 (a) 4 x 101 3 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Bromine (35)
Br-76 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Br-77 3 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Br-82 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Carbon (6)
C-11 1 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
C-14 4 x 101 3 x 100 1 x 104 1 x 107
Calcium (20)
Ca-41 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 105 1 x 107
Ca-45 4 x 101 1 x 100 1 x 104 1 x 107
Ca-47 (a) 3 x 100 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Cadmium (48)
Cd-109 3 x 101 2 x 100 1 x 104 1 x 106
Cd-113m 4 x 101 5 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Cd-115 (a) 3 x 100 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Cd-115m 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Cerium (58)
Ce-139 7 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Ce-141 2 x 101 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 107
Ce-143 9 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Ce-144 (a) 2 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 102 (b) 1 x 105 (b)
Californium (98)
Cf-248 4 x 101 6 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
Cf-249 3 x 100 8 x 10-4 1 x 100 1 x 103
Cf-250 2 x 101 2 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
Cf-251 7 x 100 7 x 10-4 1 x 100 1 x 103
Cf-252 1 x 10-1 3 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
Cf-253 (a) 4 x 101 4 x 10-2 1 x 102 1 x 105
Cf-254 1 x 10-3 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 103
Chlorine (17)
Cl-36 1 x 101 6 x 10-1 1 x 104 1 x 106
Cl-38 2 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Curium (96)
Cm-240 4 x 101 2 x 10-2 1 x 102 1 x 105
Cm-241 2 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Cm-242 4 x 101 1 x 10-2 1 x 102 1 x 105
Cm-243 9 x 100 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 104
Cm-244 2 x 101 2 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
Cm-245 9 x 100 9 x 10-4 1 x 100 1 x 103
Cm-246 9 x 100 9 x 10-4 1 x 100 1 x 103
Cm-247 (a) 3 x 100 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 104
Cm-248 2 x 10-2 3 x 10-4 1 x 100 1 x 103
Cobalt (27)
Co-55 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Co-56 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Co-57 1 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 102 1 x 106
Co-58 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Co-58m 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 107
Co-60 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Chromium (24)
Cr-51 3 x 101 3 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Caesium (55)
Cs-129 4 x 100 4 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 105
Cs-131 3 x 101 3 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 106
Cs-132 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 105
Cs-134 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 104
Cs-134m 4 x 101 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 105
Cs-135 4 x 101 1 x 100 1 x 104 1 x 107
Cs-136 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Cs-137 (a) 2 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 104 (b)
Copper (29)
Cu-64 6 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Cu-67 1 x 101 7 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Dysprosium (66)
Dy-159 2 x 101 2 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Dy-165 9 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Dy-166 (a) 9 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Erbium (68)
Er-169 4 x 101 1 x 100 1 x 104 1 x 107
Er-171 8 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Europium (63)
Eu-147 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Eu-148 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Eu-149 2 x 101 2 x 101 1 x 102 1 x 107
Eu-150(short-lived) 2 x 100 7 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Eu-150(long-lived) 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Eu-152 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Eu-152m 8 x 10-1 8 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Eu-154 9 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Eu-155 2 x 101 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Eu-156 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Fluorine (9)
F-18 1 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Iron (26)
Fe-52 (a) 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Fe-55 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 106
Fe-59 9 x 10-1 9 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Fe-60 (a) 4 x 101 2 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Gallium (31)
Ga-67 7 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Ga-68 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Ga-72 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Gadolinium (64)
Gd-146 (a) 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Gd-148 2 x 101 2 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
Gd-153 1 x 101 9 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Gd-159 3 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Germanium (32)
Ge-68 (a) 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Ge-71 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 10⁸
Ge-77 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Hafnium (72)
Hf-172 (a) 6 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Hf-175 3 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Hf-181 2 x 100 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Hf-182 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 102 1 x 106
Mercury (80)
Hg-194 (a) 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Hg-195m (a) 3 x 100 7 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Hg-197 2 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 102 1 x 107
Hg-197m 1 x 101 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Hg-203 5 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 105
Holmium (67)
Ho-166 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 105
Ho-166m 6 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Iodine (53)
I-123 6 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
I-124 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
I-125 2 x 101 3 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 106
I-126 2 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
I-129 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x102 1 x 105
I-131 3 x 100 7 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
I-132 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
I-133 7 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
I-134 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
I-135 (a) 6 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Indium (49)
In-111 3 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
In-113m 4 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
In-114m (a) 1 x 101 5 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
In-115m 7 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Iridium (77)
Ir-189 (a) 1 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 102 1 x 107
Ir-190 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Ir-192 1 x 10⁰ (c) 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 104
Ir-194 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Potassium (19)
K-40 9 x 10-1 9 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
K-42 2 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
K-43 7 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Krypton (36)
Kr-79 4 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 105
Kr-81 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 107
Kr-85 1 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 105 1 x 104
Kr-85m 8 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 10¹⁰
Kr-87 2 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 109
Lanthanum (57)
La-137 3 x 101 6 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 107
La-140 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Lutetium (71)
Lu-172 6 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Lu-173 8 x 100 8 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Lu-174 9 x 100 9 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Lu-174m 2 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 102 1 x 107
Lu-177 3 x 101 7 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 107
Magnesium (12)
Mg-28 (a) 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Manganese (25)
Mn-52 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Mn-53 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 104 1 x 109
Mn-54 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Mn-56 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Molybdenum (42)
Mo-93 4 x 101 2 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 10⁸
Mo-99 (a) 1 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Nitrogen (7)
N-13 9 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 109
Sodium (11)
Na-22 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Na-24 2 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Niobium (41)
Nb-93m 4 x 101 3 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 107
Nb-94 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Nb-95 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Nb-97 9 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Neodymium (60)
Nd-147 6 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Nd-149 6 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Nickel (28)
Ni-59 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 104 1 x 10⁸
Ni-63 4 x 101 3 x 101 1 x 105 1 x 10⁸
Ni-65 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Neptunium (93)
Np-235 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Np-236(short-lived) 2 x 101 2 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 107
Np-236(long-lived) 9 x 100 2 x 10-2 1 x 102 1 x 105
Np-237 2 x 101 2 x 10-3 1 x 100 (b) 1 x 103 (b)
Np-239 7 x 100 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 107
Osmium (76)
Os-185 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Os-191 1 x 101 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Os-191m 4 x 101 3 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Os-193 2 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Os-194 (a) 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Phosphorus (15)
P-32 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 105
P-33 4 x 101 1 x 100 1 x 105 1 x 10⁸
Protactinium (91)
Pa-230 (a) 2 x 100 7 x 10-2 1 x 101 1 x 106
Pa-231 4 x 100 4 x 10-4 1 x 100 1 x 103
Pa-233 5 x 100 7 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 107
Lead (82)
Pb-201 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Pb-202 4 x 101 2 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 106
Pb-203 4 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Pb-205 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 104 1 x 107
Pb-210 (a) 1 x 100 5 x 10-2 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 104 (b)
Pb-212 (a) 7 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 105 (b)
Palladium (46)
Pd-103 (a) 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 10⁸
Pd-107 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 105 1 x 10⁸
Pd-109 2 x 100 5 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Promethium (61)
Pm-143 3 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Pm-144 7 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Pm-145 3 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Pm-147 4 x 101 2 x 100 1 x 104 1 x 107
Pm-148m (a) 8 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Pm-149 2 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Pm-151 2 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Polonium (84)
Po-210 4 x 101 2 x 10-2 1 x 101 1 x 104
Praseodymium (59)
Pr-142 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Pr-143 3 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 104 1 x 106
Platinum (78)
Pt-188 (a) 1 x 100 8 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Pt-191 4 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Pt-193 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 107
Pt-193m 4 x 101 5 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 107
Pt-195m 1 x 101 5 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Pt-197 2 x 101 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Pt-197m 1 x 101 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Plutonium (94)
Pu-236 3 x 101 3 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
Pu-237 2 x 101 2 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Pu-238 1 x 101 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 104
Pu-239 1 x 101 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 104
Pu-240 1 x 101 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 103
Pu-241 (a) 4 x 101 6 x 10-2 1 x 102 1 x 105
Pu-242 1 x 101 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 104
Pu-244 (a) 4 x 10-1 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 104
Radium (88)
Ra-223 (a) 4 x 10-1 7 x 10-3 1 x 102 (b) 1 x 10⁵ (b)
Ra-224 (a) 4 x 10-1 2 x 10-2 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 10⁵ (b)
Ra-225 (a) 2 x 10-1 4 x 10-3 1 x 102 1 x 105
Ra-226 (a) 2 x 10-1 3 x 10-3 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 10⁴ (b)
Ra-228 (a) 6 x 10-1 2 x 10-2 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 10⁵ (b)
Rubidium (37)
Rb-81 2 x 100 8 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Rb-83 (a) 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Rb-84 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Rb-86 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Rb-87 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 104 1 x 107
Rb (nat) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 104 1 x 107
Rhenium (75)
Re-184 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Re-184m 3 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Re-186 2 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Re-187 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 106 1 x 109
Re-188 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Re-189 (a) 3 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Re (nat) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 106 1 x 109
Rhodium (45)
Rh-99 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Rh-101 4 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Rh-102 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Rh-102m 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Rh-103m 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 10⁸
Rh-105 1 x 101 8 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 107
Radon (86)
Rn-222 (a) 3 x 10-1 4 x 10-3 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 10⁸ (b)
Ruthenium (44)
Ru-97 5 x 100 5 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Ru-103 (a) 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Ru-105 1 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Ru-106 (a) 2 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 102 (b) 1 x 105 (b)
Sulphur (16)
S-35 4 x 101 3 x 100 1 x 105 1 x 10⁸
Antimony (51)
Sb-122 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 104
Sb-124 6 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Sb-125 2 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Sb-126 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Scandium (21)
Sc-44 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Sc-46 5 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Sc-47 1 x 101 7 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Sc-48 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Selenium (34)
Se-75 3 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Se-79 4 x 101 2 x 100 1 x 104 1 x 107
Silicon (14)
Si-31 6 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Si-32 4 x 101 5 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Samarium (62)
Sm-145 1 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 102 1 x 107
Sm-147 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 101 1 x 104
Sm-151 4 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 10⁸
Sm-153 9 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Tin (50)
Sn-113 (a) 4 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 107
Sn-117m 7 x 100 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Sn-119m 4 x 101 3 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Sn-121m (a) 4 x 101 9 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 107
Sn-123 8 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Sn-125 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Sn-126 (a) 6 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Strontium (38)
Sr-82 (a) 2 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Sr-85 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Sr-85m 5 x 100 5 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Sr-87m 3 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Sr-89 6 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Sr-90 (a) 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 102 (b) 1 x 104 (b)
Sr-91 (a) 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Sr-92 (a) 1 x 100 3 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Tritium (1)
T (H-3) 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 106 1 x 109
Tantalum (73)
Ta-178(long-lived) 1 x 100 8 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Ta-179 3 x 101 3 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
Ta-182 9 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 104
Terbium (65)
Tb-157 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 107
Tb-158 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Tb-160 1 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Technetium (43)
Tc-95m (a) 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Tc-96 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Tc-96m (a) 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 107
Tc-97 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 103 1 x 10⁸
Tc-97m 4 x 101 1 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 107
Tc-98 8 x 10-1 7 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Tc-99 4 x 101 9 x 10-1 1 x 104 1 x 107
Tc-99m 1 x 101 4 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Tellurium (52)
Te-121 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Te-121m 5 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Te-123m 8 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Te-125m 2 x 101 9 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 107
Te-127 2 x 101 7 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Te-127m (a) 2 x 101 5 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 107
Te-129 7 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Te-129m (a) 8 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Te-131m (a) 7 x 10-1 5 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Te-132 (a) 5 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 107
Thorium (90)
Th-227 1 x 101 5 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
Th-228 (a) 5 x 10-1 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 (b) 1 x 104 (b)
Th-229 5 x 100 5 x 10-4 1 x 100 (b) 1 x 103 (b)
Th-230 1 x 101 1 x 10-3 1 x 100 1 x 104
Th-231 4 x 101 2 x 10-2 1 x 103 1 x 107
Th-232 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 101 1 x 104
Th-234 (a) 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 103 (b) 1 x 105 (b)
Th (nat) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 100 (b) 1 x 103 (b)
Titanium (22)
Ti-44 (a) 5 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
Thallium (81)
Tl-200 9 x 10-1 9 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Tl-201 1 x 101 4 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Tl-202 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Tl-204 1 x 101 7 x 10-1 1 x 104 1 x 104
Thulium (69)
Tm-167 7 x 100 8 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Tm-170 3 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Tm-171 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 10⁸
Uranium (92)
U-230 (fast lung absorption) (a) (d) 4 x 101 1 x 10-1 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 105 (b)
U-230 (medium lung absorption) (a) (e) 4 x 101 4 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
U-230 (slow lung absorption) (a) (f) 3 x 101 3 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
U-232 (fast lung absorption) (d) 4 x 101 1 x 10-2 1 x 100 (b) 1 x 103 (b)
U-232 (medium lung absorption) (e) 4 x 101 7 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
U-232 (slow lung absorption) (f) 1 x 101 1 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
U-233 (fast lung absorption) (d) 4 x 101 9 x 10-2 1 x 101 1 x 104
U-233 (medium lung absorption) (e) 4 x 101 2 x 10-2 1 x 102 1 x 105
U-233 (slow lung absorption) (f) 4 x 101 6 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 105
U-234 (fast lung absorption) (d) 4 x 101 9 x 10-2 1 x 101 1 x 104
U-234 (medium lung absorption) (e) 4 x 101 2 x 10-2 1 x 102 1 x 105
U-234 (slow lung absorption) (f) 4 x 101 6 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 105
U-235 (all lung absorption types) (a) (d) (e) (f) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 104 (b)
U-236 (fast lung absorption) (d) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 101 1 x 104
U-236 (medium lung absorption) (e) 4 x 101 2 x 10-2 1 x 102 1 x 105
U-236 (slow lung absorption) (f) 4 x 101 6 x 10-3 1 x 101 1 x 104
U-238 (all lung absorption types) (d) (e) (f) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 104 (b)
U (nat) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 100 (b) 1 x 103 (b)
U (enriched to 20% or less) (g) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 100 1 x 103
U (dep) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 100 1 x 103
Vanadium (23)
V-48 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 105
V-49 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 107
Tungsten (74)
W-178 (a) 9 x 100 5 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
W-181 3 x 101 3 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 107
W-185 4 x 101 8 x 10-1 1 x 104 1 x 107
W-187 2 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
W-188 (a) 4 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Xenon (54)
Xe-122 (a) 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 109
Xe-123 2 x 100 7 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 109
Xe-127 4 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 105
Xe-131m 4 x 101 4 x 101 1 x 104 1 x 104
Xe-133 2 x 101 1 x 101 1 x 103 1 x 104
Xe-135 3 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 103 1 x 10¹0
Yttrium (39)
Y-87 (a) 1 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Y-88 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Y-90 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 105
Y-91 6 x 10-1 6 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 106
Y-91m 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Y-92 2 x 10-1 2 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Y-93 3 x 10-1 3 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 105
Ytterbium (70)
Yb-169 4 x 100 1 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 107
Yb-175 3 x 101 9 x 10-1 1 x 103 1 x 107
Zinc (30)
Zn-65 2 x 100 2 x 100 1 x 101 1 x 106
Zn-69 3 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 104 1 x 106
Zn-69m (a) 3 x 100 6 x 10-1 1 x 102 1 x 106
Zirconium (40)
Zr-88 3 x 100 3 x 100 1 x 102 1 x 106
Zr-93 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 103 (b) 1 x 10⁷ (b)
Zr-95 (a) 2 x 100 8 x 10-1 1 x 101 1 x 106
Zr-97 (a) 4 x 10-1 4 x 10-1 1 x 101 (b) 1 x 105 (b)
  1. A1 and/or A2 values for these parent radionuclides include contributions from their progeny with half-lives less than 10 days, as listed in the following:

    Mg-28 Al-28
    Ar-42 K-42
    Ca-47 Sc-47
    Ti-44 Sc-44
    Fe-52 Mn-52m
    Fe-60 Co-60m
    Zn-69m Zn-69
    Ge-68 Ga-68
    Rb-83 Kr-83m
    Sr-82 Rb-82
    Sr-90 Y-90
    Sr-91 Y-91m
    Sr-92 Y-92
    Y-87 Sr-87m
    Zr-95 Nb-95m
    Zr-97 Nb-97m, Nb-97
    Mo-99 Tc-99m
    Tc-95m Tc-95
    Tc-96m Tc-96
    Ru-103 Rh-103m
    Ru-106 Rh-106
    Pd-103 Rh-103m
    Ag-108m Ag-108
    Ag-110m Ag-110
    Cd-115 In-115m
    In-114m In-114
    Sn-113 In-113m
    Sn-121m Sn-121
    Sn-126 Sb-126m
    Te-118 Sb-118
    Te-127m Te-127
    Te-129m Te-129
    Te-131m Te-131
    Te-132 I-132
    I-135 Xe-135m
    Xe-122 I-122
    Cs-137 Ba-137m
    Ba-131 Cs-131
    Ba-140 La-140
    Ce-144 Pr-144m, Pr-144
    Pm-148m Pm-148
    Gd-146 Eu-146
    Dy-166 Ho-166
    Hf-172 Lu-172
    W-178 Ta-178
    W-188 Re-188
    Re-189 Os-189m
    Os-194 Ir-194
    Ir-189 Os-189m
    Pt-188 Ir-188
    Hg-194 Au-194
    Hg-195m Hg-195
    Pb-210 Bi-210
    Pb-212 Bi-212, Tl-208, Po-212
    Bi-210m Tl-206
    Bi-212 Tl-208, Po-212
    At-211 Po-211
    Rn-222 Po-218, Pb-214, At-218, Bi-214, Po-214
    Ra-223 Rn-219, Po-215, Pb-211, Bi-211, Po-211, Tl-207
    Ra-224 Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208, Po-212
    Ra-225 Ac-225, Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Tl-209, Po-213, Pb-209
    Ra-226 Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, At-218, Bi-214, Po-214
    Ra-228 Ac-228
    Ac-225 Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Tl-209, Po-213, Pb-209
    Ac-227 Fr-223
    Th-228 Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208, Po-212
    Th-234 Pa-234m, Pa-234
    Pa-230 Ac-226, Th-226, Fr-222, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
    U-230 Th-226, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
    U-235 Th-231
    Pu-241 U-237
    Pu-244 U-240, Np-240m
    Am-242m Am-242, Np-238
    Am-243 Np-239
    Cm-247 Pu-243
    Bk-249 Am-245
    Cf-253 Cm-249
  2. Parent nuclides and their progeny included in secular equilibrium are listed in the following:

    Sr-90 Y-90
    Zr-93 Nb-93m
    Zr-97 Nb-97
    Ru-106 Rh-106
    Ag-108m Ag-108
    Cs-137 Ba-137m
    Ce-144 Pr-144
    Ba-140 La-140
    Bi-212 Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
    Pb-210 Bi-210, Po-210
    Pb-212 Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
    Rn-222 Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214
    Ra-223 Rn-219, Po-215, Pb-211, Bi-211, Tl-207
    Ra-224 Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
    Ra-226 Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214, Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210
    Ra-228 Ac-228
    Th-228 Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
    Th-229 Ra-225, Ac-225, Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Po-213, Pb-209
    Th (nat) Ra-228, Ac-228, Th-228, Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
    Th-234 Pa-234m
    U-230 Th-226, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
    U-232 Th-228, Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
    U-235 Th-231
    U-238 Th-234, Pa-234m
    U (nat) Th-234, Pa-234m, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214, Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210
    Np-237 Pa-233
    Am-242m Am-242
    Am-243 Np-239
  3. The quantity may be determined from a measurement of the rate of decay or a measurement of the radiation level at a prescribed distance from the source.

  4. These values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UF6, UO2F2 and UO2(NO3)2 in both normal and accident conditions of transport.

  5. These values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UO3, UF4, UCl4 and hexavalent compounds in both normal and accident conditions of transport.

  6. These values apply to all compounds of uranium other than those specified in (d) and (e) above.

  7. These values apply to unirradiated uranium only.

2.7.2.2.2

For individual radionuclides:

  1. Which are not listed in table 2.7.2.2.1 the determination of the basic radionuclide values referred to in 2.7.2.2.1 shall require multilateral approval. For these radionuclides, activity concentration limits for exempt material and activity limits for exempt consignments shall be calculated in accordance with the principles established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No.115, IAEA, Vienna (1996). It is permissible to use an A2 value calculated using a dose coefficient for the appropriate lung absorption type as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, if the chemical forms of each radionuclide under both normal and accident conditions of transport are taken into consideration. Alternatively, the radionuclide values in table 2.7.2.2.2 may be used without obtaining competent authority approval;

  2. In instruments or articles in which the radioactive material is enclosed or is included as a component part of the instrument or other manufactured article and which meet 2.7.2.4.1.3.3, alternative basic radionuclide values to those in table 2.7.2.2.1 for the activity limit for an exempt consignment are permitted and shall require multilateral approval. Such alternative activity limits for an exempt consignment shall be calculated in accordance with the principles set out in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No.115, IAEA, Vienna (1996).

Table 2.7.2.2.2 - Basic radionuclide values for unknown radionuclides or mixtures
Radioactive contents A1 A2 Activity concentration limit for exempt material Activity limit for exempt consignments
(TBq) (TBq) (Bq/g) (Bq)
Only beta or gamma emitting nuclides are known to be present 0.1 0.02 1 x 101 1 x 104
Alpha emitting nuclides but no neutron emitters are known to be present 0.2 9 x 10-5 1 x 10-1 1 x 103
Neutron emitting nuclides are known to be present or no relevant data are available 0.001 9 x 10-5 1 x 10-1 1 x 103
2.7.2.2.3
In the calculations of A1 and A2 for a radionuclide not in table 2.7.2.2.1, a single radioactive decay chain in which the radionuclides are present in their naturally occurring proportions, and in which no daughter nuclide has a half-life either longer than 10 days or longer than that of the parent nuclide, shall be considered as a single radionuclide; and the activity to be taken into account and the A1 or A2 value to be applied shall be those corresponding to the parent nuclide of that chain. In the case of radioactive decay chains in which any daughter nuclide has a half-life either longer than 10 days or greater than that of the parent nuclide, the parent and such daughter nuclides shall be considered as mixtures of different nuclides.
2.7.2.2.4

For mixtures of radionuclides, the basic radionuclide values referred to in 2.7.2.2.1 may be determined as follows:

\(X_m = \frac{1}{\sum\limits_i\frac{f(i)}{X(i)}}\)

where:

f(i)
is the fraction of activity or activity concentration of radionuclide i in the mixture;
X(i)
is the appropriate value of A1 or A2, or the activity concentration limit for exempt material or the activity limit for an exempt consignment, as appropriate, for the radionuclide i; and
Xm
is the derived value of A1 or A2, or the activity concentration limit for exempt material or the activity limit for an exempt consignment in the case of a mixture.
2.7.2.2.5
When the identity of each radionuclide is known but the individual activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the radionuclides may be grouped and the lowest radionuclide value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each group may be used in applying the formulae in 2.7.2.2.4 and 2.7.2.4.4. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity and the total beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the lowest radionuclide values for the alpha emitters or beta/gamma emitters, respectively.
2.7.2.2.6
For individual radionuclides or for mixtures of radionuclides for which relevant data are not available, the values shown in table 2.7.2.2.2 shall be used.
2.7.2.3
Determination of other material characteristics
2.7.2.3.1
Low specific activity (LSA) material
2.7.2.3.1.1
[Reserved]
2.7.2.3.1.2

LSA material shall be in one of three groups:

  1. LSA-I

    1. uranium and thorium ores and concentrates of such ores, and other ores containing naturally occurring radionuclides;

    2. Natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium or their compounds or mixtures, that are unirradiated and in solid or liquid form;

    3. radioactive material for which the A2 value is unlimited. Fissile material may be included only if excepted under 2.7.2.3.5; or

    4. other radioactive material in which the activity is distributed throughout and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 30 times the values for activity concentration specified in 2.7.2.2.1 to 2.7.2.2.6. Fissile material may be included only if excepted under 2.7.2.3.5;

  2. LSA-II

    1. water with tritium concentration up to 0.8 TBq/L;

    2. other material in which the activity is distributed throughout and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 10-4A2/g for solids and gases, and 10-5A2/g for liquids;

  3. LSA-III - Solids (e.g. consolidated wastes, activated materials), excluding powders, that meet the requirements of 2.7.2.3.1.3, in which:

    1. the radioactive material is distributed throughout a solid or a collection of solid objects, or is essentially uniformly distributed in a solid compact binding agent (such as concrete, bitumen and ceramic);

    2. the radioactive material is relatively insoluble, or it is intrinsically contained in a relatively insoluble matrix, so that, even under loss of packaging, the loss of radioactive material per package by leaching when placed in water for seven days would not exceed 0.1A2; and

    3. the estimated average specific activity of the solid, excluding any shielding material, does not exceed 2 x 10-3A2/g.

2.7.2.3.1.3
LSA-III material shall be a solid of such a nature that, if the entire contents of a package were subjected to the test specified in 2.7.2.3.1.4, the activity in the water would not exceed 0.1A2.
2.7.2.3.1.4

LSA-III material shall be tested as follows:

A solid material sample representing the entire contents of the package shall be immersed for 7 days in water at ambient temperature. The volume of water to be used in the test shall be sufficient to ensure that at the end of the 7-day test period the free volume of the unabsorbed and unreacted water remaining shall be at least 10% of the volume of the solid test sample itself. The water shall have an initial pH of 6 to 8 and a maximum conductivity of 1 mS/m at 20ºC. The total activity of the free volume of water shall be measured following the 7-day immersion of the test sample.

2.7.2.3.1.5
Demonstration of compliance with the performance standards in 2.7.2.3.1.4 shall be in accordance with 6.4.12.1 and 6.4.12.2.
2.7.2.3.2

Surface contaminated object (SCO)

SCO is classified in one of two groups:

  1. SCO-I: A solid object on which:

    1. the non-fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low-toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.4 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters;

    2. the fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 x 104 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low-toxicity alpha emitters, or 4 x 103 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters; or

    3. the non-fixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 x 104 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low-toxicity alpha emitters, or 4 x 103 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters;

  2. SCO-II: A solid object on which either the fixed or non-fixed contamination on the surface exceeds the applicable limits specified for SCO-I in 2.7.2.3.2.1 above and on which:

    1. the non-fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 400 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low-toxicity alpha emitters, or 40 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters;

    2. the fixed contamination on the accessible surface, averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 8 x 105 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low-toxicity alpha emitters, or 8 x 104 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters; or

    3. the non-fixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 8 x 105 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low-toxicity alpha emitters, or 8 x 104 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters.

2.7.2.3.3
Special form radioactive material
2.7.2.3.3.1
  1. Special form radioactive material shall have at least one dimension not less than 5 mm.

  2. When a sealed capsule constitutes part of the special form radioactive material, the capsule shall be so manufactured that it can be opened only by destroying it.

  3. The design for special form radioactive material requires unilateral approval.

2.7.2.3.3.2

Special form radioactive material shall be of such a nature or shall be so designed that if it is subjected to the tests specified in 2.7.2.3.3.4 to 2.7.2.3.3.8, it shall meet the following requirements:

  1. It would not break or shatter under the impact, percussion and bending tests 2.7.2.3.3.5.1, 2.7.2.3.3.5.2, 2.7.2.3.3.5.3, and 2.7.2.3.3.6.1 as applicable;

  2. It would not melt or disperse in the applicable heat test 2.7.2.3.3.5.4 or 2.7.2.3.3.6.2 as applicable; and

  3. The activity in the water from the leaching tests specified in 2.7.2.3.3.7 and 2.7.2.3.3.8 would not exceed 2 kBq; or alternatively for sealed sources, the leakage rate for the volumetric leakage assessment test specified in ISO 9978:1992, Radiation protection - Sealed radioactive sources - Leakage test methods, would not exceed the applicable acceptance threshold acceptable to the competent authority.

2.7.2.3.3.3
Demonstration of compliance with the performance standards in 2.7.2.3.3.2 shall be in accordance with 6.4.12.1 and 6.4.12.2.
2.7.2.3.3.4
Specimens that comprise or simulate special form radioactive material shall be subjected to the impact test, the percussion test, the bending test, and the heat test specified in 2.7.2.3.3.5 or alternative tests as authorized in 2.7.2.3.3.6. A different specimen may be used for each of the tests. Following each test, a leaching assessment or volumetric leakage test shall be performed on the specimen by a method no less sensitive than the methods given in 2.7.2.3.3.7 for indispersible solid material or 2.7.2.3.3.8 for encapsulated material.
2.7.2.3.3.5

The relevant test methods are:

  1. Impact test: The specimen shall drop onto the target from a height of 9 m. The target shall be as defined in 6.4.14;

  2. Percussion test: The specimen shall be placed on a sheet of lead which is supported by a smooth solid surface and struck by the flat face of a mild steel bar so as to cause an impact equivalent to that resulting from a free drop of 1.4 kg through 1 m. The lower part of the bar shall be 25 mm in diameter with the edges rounded off to a radius of (3.0 ± 0.3) mm. The lead, of hardness number 3.5 to 4.5 on the Vickers scale and not more than 25 mm thick, shall cover an area greater than that covered by the specimen. A fresh surface of lead shall be used for each impact. The bar shall strike the specimen so as to cause maximum damage;

  3. Bending test: The test shall apply only to long, slender sources with both a minimum length of 10 cm and a length to minimum width ratio of not less than 10. The specimen shall be rigidly clamped in a horizontal position so that one half of its length protrudes from the face of the clamp. The orientation of the specimen shall be such that the specimen will suffer maximum damage when its free end is struck by the flat face of a steel bar. The bar shall strike the specimen so as to cause an impact equivalent to that resulting from a free vertical drop of 1.4 kg through 1 m. The lower part of the bar shall be 25 mm in diameter with the edges rounded off to a radius of (3.0 ± 0.3) mm;

  4. Heat test: The specimen shall be heated in air to a temperature of 800ºC and held at that temperature for a period of 10 minutes and shall then be allowed to cool.

2.7.2.3.3.6

Specimens that comprise or simulate radioactive material enclosed in a sealed capsule may be excepted from:

  1. The tests prescribed in 2.7.2.3.3.5.1 and 2.7.2.3.3.5.2 provided that the specimens are alternatively subjected to the impact test prescribed in ISO 2919:2012, Radiation Protection - Sealed Radioactive Sources - General requirements and classification:

    1. the class 4 impact test if the mass of the special form radioactive material is less than 200 g; and

    2. the class 5 impact test if the mass of the special form radioactive material is equal to or more than 200 g but is less than 500 g.

  2. The test prescribed in 2.7.2.3.3.5.4 provided they are alternatively subjected to the class 6 temperature test specified in ISO 2919:2012, Radiation protection - Sealed radioactive sources - General requirements and classification.

2.7.2.3.3.7

For specimens which comprise or simulate indispersible solid material, a leaching assessment shall be performed as follows:

  1. The specimen shall be immersed for 7 days in water at ambient temperature. The volume of water to be used in the test shall be sufficient to ensure that at the end of the 7-day test period the free volume of the unabsorbed and unreacted water remaining shall be at least 10% of the volume of the solid test sample itself. The water shall have an initial pH of 6 to 8 and a maximum conductivity of 1 mS/m at 20ºC;

  2. The water with specimen shall then be heated to a temperature of (50 ± 5)ºC and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours;

  3. The activity of the water shall then be determined;

  4. The specimen shall then be kept for at least 7 days in still air at not less than 30ºC and relative humidity not less than 90%;

  5. The specimen shall then be immersed in water of the same specification as in 2.7.2.3.3.7.1 above and the water with the specimen heated to (50 ± 5)ºC and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours;

  6. The activity of the water shall then be determined.

2.7.2.3.3.8

For specimens which comprise or simulate radioactive material enclosed in a sealed capsule, either a leaching assessment or a volumetric leakage assessment shall be performed as follows:

  1. The leaching assessment shall consist of the following steps:

    1. the specimen shall be immersed in water at ambient temperature. The water shall have an initial pH of 6 to 8 with a maximum conductivity of 1 mS/m at 20ºC;

    2. the water and specimen shall be heated to a temperature of (50 ± 5)ºC and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours;

    3. the activity of the water shall then be determined;

    4. the specimen shall then be kept for at least 7 days in still air at not less than 30ºC and relative humidity of not less than 90%;

    5. the process in .1, .2 and .3 shall be repeated.

  2. The alternative volumetric leakage assessment shall comprise any of the tests prescribed in ISO 9978:1992, Radiation protection - Sealed radioactive sources - Leakage test methods provided that they are acceptable to the competent authority.

2.7.2.3.4
Low dispersible material
2.7.2.3.4.1

The design for low dispersible radioactive material shall require multilateral approval. Low dispersible radioactive material shall be such that the total amount of this radioactive material in a package, taking into account the provisions of 6.4.8.14, shall meet the following provisions:

  1. The radiation level at 3 m from the unshielded radioactive material does not exceed 10 mSv/h;

  2. If subjected to the tests specified in 6.4.20.3 and 6.4.20.4, the airborne release in gaseous and particulate forms of up to 100 µm aerodynamic equivalent diameter would not exceed 100A2. A separate specimen may be used for each test; and

  3. If subjected to the test specified in 2.7.2.3.1.4, the activity in the water would not exceed 100A2. In the application of this test, the damaging effects of the tests specified in 2.7.2.3.4.1.2 above shall be taken into account.

2.7.2.3.4.2

Low dispersible material shall be tested as follows:

A specimen that comprises or simulates low dispersible radioactive material shall be subjected to the enhanced thermal test specified in 6.4.20.3 and the impact test specified in 6.4.20.4. A different specimen may be used for each of the tests. Following each test, the specimen shall be subjected to the leach test specified in 2.7.2.3.1.4. After each test it shall be determined if the applicable provisions of 2.7.2.3.4.1 have been met.

2.7.2.3.4.3
Demonstration of compliance with the performance standards in 2.7.2.3.4.1 and 2.7.2.3.4.2 shall be in accordance with 6.4.12.1 and 6.4.12.2.
2.7.2.3.5

Fissile material

Fissile material and packages containing fissile material shall be classified under the relevant entry as "FISSILE" in accordance with table 2.7.2.1.1 unless excepted by one of the provisions of subparagraphs .1 to .6 below and transported subject to the requirements of 5.1.5.5. All provisions apply only to material in packages that meets the requirements of 6.4.7.2 unless unpackaged material is specifically allowed in the provision.

  1. uranium enriched in uranium-235 to a maximum of 1% by mass, and with a total plutonium and uranium-233 content not exceeding 1% of the mass of uranium-235, provided that the fissile nuclides are distributed essentially homogeneously throughout the material. In addition, if uranium-235 is present in metallic, oxide or carbide forms, it shall not form a lattice arrangement;

  2. liquid solutions of uranyl nitrate enriched in uranium-235 to a maximum of 2% by mass, with a total plutonium and uranium-233 content not exceeding 0.002% of the mass of uranium, and with a minimum nitrogen to uranium atomic ratio (N/U) of 2;

  3. uranium with a maximum uranium enrichment of 5% by mass uranium-235 provided:

    1. there is no more than 3.5 g of uranium-235 per package;

    2. the total plutonium and uranium-233 content does not exceed 1% of the mass of uranium-235 per package;

    3. Transport of the package is subject to the consignment limit provided in 5.1.5.5.3;

  4. fissile nuclides with a total mass not greater than 2 g per package provided the package is transported subject to the consignment limit provided in 5.1.5.5.4;

  5. fissile nuclides with a total mass not greater than 45 g either packaged or unpackaged subject to limits provided in 5.1.5.5.5;

  6. a fissile material that meets the requirements of 5.1.5.5.2, 2.7.2.3.6 and 5.1.5.2.1.

2.7.2.3.6

A fissile material excepted from classification as "FISSILE" under 2.7.2.3.5.6 shall be subcritical without the need for accumulation control under the following conditions:

  1. the conditions of 6.4.11.1(a);

  2. the conditions consistent with the assessment provisions stated in 6.4.11.12 (b) and 6.4.11.13 (b) for packages; and

  3. the conditions specified in 6.4.11.11 (a), if transported by air.

2.7.2.4

Classification of packages or unpacked material

The quantity of radioactive material in a package shall not exceed the relevant limits for the package type as specified below.

2.7.2.4.1
Classification as excepted package
2.7.2.4.1.1

A package may be classified as an excepted package if it meets one of the following conditions:

  1. it is an empty package having contained radioactive material;

  2. it contains instruments or articles not exceeding the activity limits specified in columns (2) and (3) of table 2.7.2.4.1.2;

  3. it contains articles manufactured of natural uranium, depleted uranium or natural thorium;

  4. it contains radioactive material not exceeding the activity limits specified in column (4) of table 2.7.2.4.1.2; or

  5. it contains less than 0.1 kg of uranium hexafluoride not exceeding the activity limits specified in column (4) of table 2.7.2.4.1.2.

2.7.2.4.1.2

A package containing radioactive material may be classified as an excepted package provided that the radiation level at any point on its external surface does not exceed 5 µSv/h.

Table 2.7.2.4.1.2 - Activity limits for excepted packages
Physical state of contents Instruments or article Materials package limitsa
Item limitsa Package limitsa
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Solids
special form 10-2 A1 A1 10-3 A1
other form 10-2A2 A2 10-3 A2
Liquids 10-3 A2 10-1 A2 10-4 A2
Gases
tritium 2 x 10-2 A2 2 x 10-1 A2 2 x 10-2 A2
special form 10-3 A1 10-2 A1 10-3 A1
other forms 10-3 A2 10-2 A2 10-3 A2

a For mixtures of radionuclides, see 2.7.2.2.4 to 2.7.2.2.6.

2.7.2.4.1.3

Radioactive material which is enclosed in or is included as a component part of an instrument or other manufactured article may be classified under UN 2911, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - INSTRUMENTS or ARTICLES provided that:

  1. the radiation level at 10 cm from any point on the external surface of any unpackaged instrument or article is not greater than 0.1 mSv/h; and

  2. each instrument or manufactured article bears the mark "RADIOACTIVE" on its external surface except for the following:

    1. radioluminescent time-pieces or devices;

    2. consumer products that either have received regulatory approval in accordance with 1.5.1.4.5 or do not individually exceed the activity limit for an exempt consignment in table 2.7.2.2.1 (column 5), provided such products are transported in a package that bears the mark "RADIOACTIVE" on its internal surface in such a manner that a warning of the presence of radioactive material is visible on opening the package;

    3. other instruments or articles too small to bear the mark "RADIOACTIVE", provided that they are transported in a package that bears the mark "RADIOACTIVE" on its internal surface in such a manner that a warning of the presence of radioactive material is visible on opening the package; and

  3. the active material is completely enclosed by non-active components (a device performing the sole function of containing radioactive material shall not be considered to be an instrument or manufactured article); and

  4. the limits specified in columns 2 and 3 of table 2.7.2.4.1.2 are met for each individual item and each package, respectively.

2.7.2.4.1.4

Radioactive material in forms other than as specified in 2.7.2.4.1.3 and with an activity not exceeding the limits specified in column 4 of table 2.7.2.4.1.2, may be classified under UN 2910, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - LIMITED QUANTITY OF MATERIAL provided that:

  1. the package retains its radioactive contents under routine conditions of transport; and

  2. the package bears the mark "RADIOACTIVE" on either:

    1. an internal surface in such a manner that a warning of the presence of radioactive material is visible on opening the package; or

    2. the outside of the package, where it is impractical to mark an internal surface.

2.7.2.4.1.5

Uranium hexafluoride not exceeding the limits specified in column 4 of table 2.7.2.4.1.2 may be classified under UN 3507 URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE, less than 0.1 kg per package, non-fissile or fissile-excepted provided that:

  1. the mass of uranium hexafluoride in the package is less than 0.1 kg; and

  2. the conditions of 2.7.2.4.5.1 and 2.7.2.4.1.4.1 and 2.7.2.4.1.4.2 are met.

2.7.2.4.1.6
Articles manufactured of natural uranium, depleted uranium or natural thorium and articles in which the sole radioactive material is unirradiated natural uranium, unirradiated depleted uranium or unirradiated natural thorium may be classified under UN 2909, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM NATURAL URANIUM or DEPLETED URANIUM or NATURAL THORIUM, provided that the outer surface of the uranium or thorium is enclosed in an inactive sheath made of metal or some other substantial material.
2.7.2.4.1.7

An empty packaging which had previously contained radioactive material may be classified under UN 2908, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - EMPTY PACKAGING, provided that:

  1. it is in a well-maintained condition and securely closed;

  2. the outer surface of any uranium or thorium in its structure is covered with an inactive sheath made of metal or some other substantial material;

  3. the level of internal non-fixed contamination, when averaged over any 300 cm2, does not exceed:

    1. 400 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low-toxicity alpha emitters; and

    2. 40 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters; and

  4. any labels which may have been displayed on it in conformity with 5.2.2.1.12.1 are no longer visible.

2.7.2.4.2

Classification as Low specific activity (LSA) material

Radioactive material may only be classified as LSA material if the definition of LSA in 2.7.1.3 and the conditions of 2.7.2.3.1, 4.1.9.2 and 7.1.4.5.1 are met.

2.7.2.4.3

Classification as Surface contaminated object (SCO)

Radioactive material may be classified as SCO if the definition of SCO in 2.7.1.3 and the conditions of 2.7.2.3.2, 4.1.9.2 and 7.1.4.5.1 are met.

2.7.2.4.4

Classification as Type A package

Packages containing radioactive material may be classified as Type A packages provided that the following conditions are met:

Type A packages shall not contain activities greater than either of the following:

  1. for special form radioactive material - A₁;

  2. for all other radioactive material - A₂.

For mixtures of radionuclides whose identities and respective activities are known, the following condition shall apply to the radioactive contents of a Type A package:

\(\sum\limits_i\frac{B(i)}{A_1(i)} + \sum\limits_j\frac{C(j)}{A_2(j)} \leq 1\)

where:

B(i)
is the activity of radionuclide i as special form radioactive material;
A1(i)
is the A1 value for radionuclide i;
C(j)
is the activity of radionuclide j as other than special form radioactive material;
A2(j)
is the A2 value for radionuclide j.
2.7.2.4.5
Classification of uranium hexafluoride
2.7.2.4.5.1

Uranium hexafluoride shall only be assigned to:

  1. UN 2977, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, FISSILE;

  2. UN 2978, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, non-fissile or fissile-excepted; or

  3. UN 3507, URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE less than 0.1 kg per package, non-fissile or fissile-excepted.

2.7.2.4.5.2

The contents of a package containing uranium hexafluoride shall comply with the following requirements:

  1. for UN Nos. 2977 and 2978, the mass of uranium hexafluoride shall not be different from that allowed for the package design, and for UN 3507, the mass of uranium hexafluoride shall be less than 0.1 kg;

  2. the mass of uranium hexafluoride shall not be greater than a value that would lead to an ullage smaller than 5% at the maximum temperature of the package as specified for the plant systems where the package shall be used; and

  3. the uranium hexafluoride shall be in solid form and the internal pressure shall not be above atmospheric pressure when presented for transport.

2.7.2.4.6
Classification as Type B(U), Type B(M) or Type C packages
2.7.2.4.6.1
Packages not otherwise classified in 2.7.2.4 (2.7.2.4.1 to 2.7.2.4.5) shall be classified in accordance with the competent authority certificate of approval for the package issued by the country of origin of design.
2.7.2.4.6.2
The contents of a Type B(U), Type B(M) or Type C package shall be as specified in the certificate of approval.
2.7.2.5

Special arrangements

Radioactive material shall be classified as transported under special arrangement when it is intended to be transported in accordance with 1.5.4.

Chapter 2.6

Chapter 2.8