Chapter 2.7
Class 7  Radioactive material
 Note:
 For class 7, the type of packaging may have a decisive effect on classification.
 2.7.1
 Definitions
 2.7.1.1
 Radioactive material means any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the consignment exceed the values specified in 2.7.2.2.1 to 2.7.2.2.6.
 2.7.1.2

Contamination
Contamination means the presence of a radioactive substance on a surface in quantities in excess of 0.4 Bq/cm^{2} for beta and gamma emitters and lowtoxicity alpha emitters, or 0.04 Bq/cm^{2} for all other alpha emitters.
Nonfixed contamination means contamination that can be removed from a surface during routine conditions of transport.
Fixed contamination means contamination other than nonfixed contamination.
 2.7.1.3

Definitions of specific terms
A_{1} and A_{2}
A_{1} means the activity value of special form radioactive material which is listed in the table in 2.7.2.2.1 or derived in 2.7.2.2.2 and is used to determine the activity limits for the provisions of this Code.
A_{2} means the activity value of radioactive material, other than special form radioactive material, which is listed in the table in 2.7.2.2.1 or derived in 2.7.2.2.2 and is used to determine the activity limits for the provisions of this Code.
Fissile nuclides means uranium233, uranium235, plutonium239 and plutonium241. Fissile material means a material containing any of the fissile nuclides. Excluded from the definition of fissile material are the following:
natural uranium or depleted uranium which is unirradiated;
natural uranium or depleted uranium which has been irradiated in thermal reactors only;
material with fissile nuclides less than a total of 0.25 g;
any combination of .1, .2 and/or .3.
These exclusions are only valid if there is no other material with fissile nuclides in the package or in the consignment if shipped unpackaged.
Low dispersible radioactive material means either a solid radioactive material or a solid radioactive material in a sealed capsule, that has limited dispersibility and is not in powder form.
Low specific activity (LSA) material means radioactive material which by its nature has a limited specific activity, or radioactive material for which limits of estimated average specific activity apply. External shielding materials surrounding the LSA material shall not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity.
Low toxicity alpha emitters are: natural uranium; depleted uranium; natural thorium; uranium235 or uranium238; thorium232; thorium228 and thorium230 when contained in ores or physical and chemical concentrates; or alpha emitters with a halflife of less than 10 days.
Specific activity of a radionuclide means the activity per unit mass of that nuclide. The specific activity of a material shall mean the activity per unit mass of the material in which the radionuclides are essentially uniformly distributed.
Special form radioactive material means either:
an indispersible solid radioactive material; or
a sealed capsule containing radioactive material.
Surface contaminated object (SCO) means a solid object which is not itself radioactive but which has radioactive material distributed on its surface.
Unirradiated thorium means thorium containing not more than 10^{7} g of uranium233 per gram of thorium232.
Unirradiated uranium means uranium containing not more than 2 x 10^{3} Bq of plutonium per gram of uranium235, not more than 9 x 10^{6} Bq of fission products per gram of uranium235 and not more than 5 x 10^{3} g of uranium236 per gram of uranium235.
Uranium  natural, depleted, enriched means the following:
Natural uranium means uranium (which may be chemically separated) containing the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes (approximately 99.28% uranium238, and 0.72% uranium235 by mass).
Depleted uranium means uranium containing a lesser mass percentage of uranium235 than in natural uranium.
Enriched uranium means uranium containing a greater mass percentage of uranium235 than 0.72%.
In all cases, a very small mass percentage of uranium234 is present.
 2.7.2
 Classification
 2.7.2.1
 General provisions
 2.7.2.1.1

Radioactive material shall be assigned to one of the UN numbers specified in table 2.7.2.1.1, in accordance with 2.7.2.4 and 2.7.2.5, taking into account the material characteristics determined in 2.7.2.3.
Table 2.7.2.1.1  Assignment of UN Numbers UN Numbers Proper shipping name^{a} and description Excepted packages
(1.5.1.5)2908 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE  EMPTY PACKAGING 2909 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE  ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM NATURAL URANIUM or DEPLETED URANIUM or NATURAL THORIUM 2910 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE  LIMITED QUANTITY OF MATERIAL 2911 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE  INSTRUMENTS or ARTICLES 3507 URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE less than 0.1 kg per package, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b, c} Low specific activity radioactive material
(2.7.2.3.1)2912 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSAI), nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3321 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSAII), nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3322 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSAIII), nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3324 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSAII), FISSILE 3325 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY (LSAIII), FISSILE Surface contaminated objects
(2.7.2.3.2)2913 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS (SCOI or SCOII), nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3326 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS (SCOI or SCOII), FISSILE Type A packages
(2.7.2.4.4)2915 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, nonspecial form, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3327 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, FISSILE, nonspecial form 3332 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, SPECIAL FORM, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3333 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE A PACKAGE, SPECIAL FORM, FISSILE Type B(U) package
(2.7.2.4.6)2916 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(U) PACKAGE, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3328 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(U) PACKAGE, FISSILE Type B(M) package
(2.7.2.4.6)2917 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(M) PACKAGE, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3329 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE B(M) PACKAGE, FISSILE Type C package
(2.7.2.4.6)3323 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE C PACKAGE, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3330 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TYPE C PACKAGE, FISSILE Special arrangement
(2.7.2.5)2919 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TRANSPORTED UNDER SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3331 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, TRANSPORTED UNDER SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT, FISSILE Uranium hexafluoride
(2.7.2.4.5)2977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, FISSILE 2978 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b} 3507 URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE less than 0.1 kg per package, nonfissile or fissileexcepted^{b, c} ^{a} The proper shipping name is found in the column "proper shipping name and description" and is restricted to that part shown in capital letters. In the cases of UN Nos. 2909, 2911, 2913 and 3326, where alternative proper shipping names are separated by the word "or", only the relevant proper shipping name shall be used.
^{b} The term "fissileexcepted" refers only to material excepted under 2.7.2.3.5.
^{c} For UN 3507, see also special provision 369 in chapter 3.3.
 2.7.2.2
 Determination of activity level
 2.7.2.2.1

The following basic values for individual radionuclides are given in table 2.7.2.2.1:
A_{1} and A_{2} in TBq;
Activity concentration limits for exempt material in Bq/g; and
Activity limits for exempt consignments in Bq.
Table 2.7.2.2.1  Basic radionuclides values for individual radionuclides Radionuclide (atomic number) A_{1} A_{2} Activity concentration limit for exempt material Activity limit for an exempt consignment (TBq) (TBq) (Bq/g) (Bq) Actinium (89) Ac225 (a) 8 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Ac227 (a) 9 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{5} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} Ac228 6 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Silver (47) Ag105 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Ag108m (a) 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{6} (b) Ag110m (a) 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Ag111 2 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Aluminium (13) Al26 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Americium (95) Am241 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Am242m (a) 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} (b) 1 x 10^{4} (b) Am243 (a) 5 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} (b) 1 x 10^{3} (b) Argon (18) Ar37 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} 1 x 10⁸ Ar39 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{7} 1 x 10^{4} Ar41 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{9} Arsenic (33) As72 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} As73 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} As74 1 x 10^{0} 9 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} As76 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} As77 2 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Astatine (85) At211 (a) 2 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Gold (79) Au193 7 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Au194 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Au195 1 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Au198 1 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Au199 1 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Barium (56) Ba131 (a) 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Ba133 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Ba133m 2 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Ba140 (a) 5 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{5} (b) Beryllium (4) Be7 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Be10 4 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{6} Bismuth (83) Bi205 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Bi206 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Bi207 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Bi210 1 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Bi210m (a) 6 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Bi212 (a) 7 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{5} (b) Berkelium (97) Bk247 8 x 10^{0} 8 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Bk249 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Bromine (35) Br76 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Br77 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Br82 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Carbon (6) C11 1 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} C14 4 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Calcium (20) Ca41 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{5} 1 x 10^{7} Ca45 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Ca47 (a) 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Cadmium (48) Cd109 3 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{6} Cd113m 4 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Cd115 (a) 3 x 10^{0} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Cd115m 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Cerium (58) Ce139 7 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Ce141 2 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Ce143 9 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Ce144 (a) 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} (b) 1 x 10^{5} (b) Californium (98) Cf248 4 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Cf249 3 x 10^{0} 8 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Cf250 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Cf251 7 x 10^{0} 7 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Cf252 1 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Cf253 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Cf254 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Chlorine (17) Cl36 1 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{6} Cl38 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Curium (96) Cm240 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Cm241 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Cm242 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Cm243 9 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Cm244 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Cm245 9 x 10^{0} 9 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Cm246 9 x 10^{0} 9 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Cm247 (a) 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Cm248 2 x 10^{2} 3 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Cobalt (27) Co55 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Co56 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Co57 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Co58 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Co58m 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Co60 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Chromium (24) Cr51 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Caesium (55) Cs129 4 x 10^{0} 4 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Cs131 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Cs132 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Cs134 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Cs134m 4 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{5} Cs135 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Cs136 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Cs137 (a) 2 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{4} (b) Copper (29) Cu64 6 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Cu67 1 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Dysprosium (66) Dy159 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Dy165 9 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Dy166 (a) 9 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Erbium (68) Er169 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Er171 8 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Europium (63) Eu147 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Eu148 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Eu149 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Eu150(shortlived) 2 x 10^{0} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Eu150(longlived) 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Eu152 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Eu152m 8 x 10^{1} 8 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Eu154 9 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Eu155 2 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Eu156 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Fluorine (9) F18 1 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Iron (26) Fe52 (a) 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Fe55 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{6} Fe59 9 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Fe60 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Gallium (31) Ga67 7 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Ga68 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Ga72 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Gadolinium (64) Gd146 (a) 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Gd148 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Gd153 1 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Gd159 3 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Germanium (32) Ge68 (a) 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Ge71 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10⁸ Ge77 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Hafnium (72) Hf172 (a) 6 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Hf175 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Hf181 2 x 10^{0} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Hf182 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Mercury (80) Hg194 (a) 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Hg195m (a) 3 x 10^{0} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Hg197 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Hg197m 1 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Hg203 5 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Holmium (67) Ho166 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{5} Ho166m 6 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Iodine (53) I123 6 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} I124 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} I125 2 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} I126 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} I129 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} I131 3 x 10^{0} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} I132 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} I133 7 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} I134 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} I135 (a) 6 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Indium (49) In111 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} In113m 4 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} In114m (a) 1 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} In115m 7 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Iridium (77) Ir189 (a) 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Ir190 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Ir192 1 x 10⁰ (c) 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Ir194 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Potassium (19) K40 9 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} K42 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} K43 7 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Krypton (36) Kr79 4 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{5} Kr81 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Kr85 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} 1 x 10^{4} Kr85m 8 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10¹⁰ Kr87 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{9} Lanthanum (57) La137 3 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} La140 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Lutetium (71) Lu172 6 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Lu173 8 x 10^{0} 8 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Lu174 9 x 10^{0} 9 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Lu174m 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Lu177 3 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Magnesium (12) Mg28 (a) 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Manganese (25) Mn52 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Mn53 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{9} Mn54 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Mn56 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Molybdenum (42) Mo93 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10⁸ Mo99 (a) 1 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Nitrogen (7) N13 9 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{9} Sodium (11) Na22 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Na24 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Niobium (41) Nb93m 4 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Nb94 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Nb95 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Nb97 9 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Neodymium (60) Nd147 6 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Nd149 6 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Nickel (28) Ni59 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10⁸ Ni63 4 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} 1 x 10⁸ Ni65 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Neptunium (93) Np235 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Np236(shortlived) 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Np236(longlived) 9 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Np237 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} (b) 1 x 10^{3} (b) Np239 7 x 10^{0} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Osmium (76) Os185 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Os191 1 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Os191m 4 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Os193 2 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Os194 (a) 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Phosphorus (15) P32 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{5} P33 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{5} 1 x 10⁸ Protactinium (91) Pa230 (a) 2 x 10^{0} 7 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Pa231 4 x 10^{0} 4 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Pa233 5 x 10^{0} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Lead (82) Pb201 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Pb202 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Pb203 4 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Pb205 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Pb210 (a) 1 x 10^{0} 5 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{4} (b) Pb212 (a) 7 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{5} (b) Palladium (46) Pd103 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10⁸ Pd107 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{5} 1 x 10⁸ Pd109 2 x 10^{0} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Promethium (61) Pm143 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Pm144 7 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Pm145 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Pm147 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Pm148m (a) 8 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Pm149 2 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Pm151 2 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Polonium (84) Po210 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Praseodymium (59) Pr142 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Pr143 3 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{6} Platinum (78) Pt188 (a) 1 x 10^{0} 8 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Pt191 4 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Pt193 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Pt193m 4 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Pt195m 1 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Pt197 2 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Pt197m 1 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Plutonium (94) Pu236 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Pu237 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Pu238 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Pu239 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Pu240 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Pu241 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Pu242 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Pu244 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Radium (88) Ra223 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{2} (b) 1 x 10⁵ (b) Ra224 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10⁵ (b) Ra225 (a) 2 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Ra226 (a) 2 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10⁴ (b) Ra228 (a) 6 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10⁵ (b) Rubidium (37) Rb81 2 x 10^{0} 8 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Rb83 (a) 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Rb84 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Rb86 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Rb87 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Rb (nat) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Rhenium (75) Re184 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Re184m 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Re186 2 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Re187 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{6} 1 x 10^{9} Re188 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Re189 (a) 3 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Re (nat) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{6} 1 x 10^{9} Rhodium (45) Rh99 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Rh101 4 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Rh102 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Rh102m 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Rh103m 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10⁸ Rh105 1 x 10^{1} 8 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Radon (86) Rn222 (a) 3 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10⁸ (b) Ruthenium (44) Ru97 5 x 10^{0} 5 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Ru103 (a) 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Ru105 1 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Ru106 (a) 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} (b) 1 x 10^{5} (b) Sulphur (16) S35 4 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{5} 1 x 10⁸ Antimony (51) Sb122 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{4} Sb124 6 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Sb125 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Sb126 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Scandium (21) Sc44 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Sc46 5 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Sc47 1 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Sc48 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Selenium (34) Se75 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Se79 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Silicon (14) Si31 6 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Si32 4 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Samarium (62) Sm145 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Sm147 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Sm151 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10⁸ Sm153 9 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Tin (50) Sn113 (a) 4 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Sn117m 7 x 10^{0} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Sn119m 4 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Sn121m (a) 4 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Sn123 8 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Sn125 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Sn126 (a) 6 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Strontium (38) Sr82 (a) 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Sr85 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Sr85m 5 x 10^{0} 5 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Sr87m 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Sr89 6 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Sr90 (a) 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} (b) 1 x 10^{4} (b) Sr91 (a) 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Sr92 (a) 1 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Tritium (1) T (H3) 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} 1 x 10^{9} Tantalum (73) Ta178(longlived) 1 x 10^{0} 8 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Ta179 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Ta182 9 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Terbium (65) Tb157 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Tb158 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Tb160 1 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Technetium (43) Tc95m (a) 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Tc96 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Tc96m (a) 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Tc97 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10⁸ Tc97m 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Tc98 8 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Tc99 4 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Tc99m 1 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Tellurium (52) Te121 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Te121m 5 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Te123m 8 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Te125m 2 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Te127 2 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Te127m (a) 2 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Te129 7 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Te129m (a) 8 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Te131m (a) 7 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Te132 (a) 5 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Thorium (90) Th227 1 x 10^{1} 5 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Th228 (a) 5 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} (b) 1 x 10^{4} (b) Th229 5 x 10^{0} 5 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{0} (b) 1 x 10^{3} (b) Th230 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{4} Th231 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Th232 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Th234 (a) 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} (b) 1 x 10^{5} (b) Th (nat) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{0} (b) 1 x 10^{3} (b) Titanium (22) Ti44 (a) 5 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} Thallium (81) Tl200 9 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Tl201 1 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Tl202 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Tl204 1 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{4} Thulium (69) Tm167 7 x 10^{0} 8 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Tm170 3 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Tm171 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10⁸ Uranium (92) U230 (fast lung absorption) (a) (d) 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{5} (b) U230 (medium lung absorption) (a) (e) 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} U230 (slow lung absorption) (a) (f) 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} U232 (fast lung absorption) (d) 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{0} (b) 1 x 10^{3} (b) U232 (medium lung absorption) (e) 4 x 10^{1} 7 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} U232 (slow lung absorption) (f) 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} U233 (fast lung absorption) (d) 4 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} U233 (medium lung absorption) (e) 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} U233 (slow lung absorption) (f) 4 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} U234 (fast lung absorption) (d) 4 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} U234 (medium lung absorption) (e) 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} U234 (slow lung absorption) (f) 4 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} U235 (all lung absorption types) (a) (d) (e) (f) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{4} (b) U236 (fast lung absorption) (d) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} U236 (medium lung absorption) (e) 4 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} U236 (slow lung absorption) (f) 4 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} U238 (all lung absorption types) (d) (e) (f) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{4} (b) U (nat) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{0} (b) 1 x 10^{3} (b) U (enriched to 20% or less) (g) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} U (dep) Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} Vanadium (23) V48 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{5} V49 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} Tungsten (74) W178 (a) 9 x 10^{0} 5 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} W181 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} W185 4 x 10^{1} 8 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{7} W187 2 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} W188 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Xenon (54) Xe122 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{9} Xe123 2 x 10^{0} 7 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{9} Xe127 4 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{5} Xe131m 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{4} Xe133 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{4} Xe135 3 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10¹0 Yttrium (39) Y87 (a) 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Y88 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Y90 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{5} Y91 6 x 10^{1} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{6} Y91m 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Y92 2 x 10^{1} 2 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Y93 3 x 10^{1} 3 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{5} Ytterbium (70) Yb169 4 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{7} Yb175 3 x 10^{1} 9 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} 1 x 10^{7} Zinc (30) Zn65 2 x 10^{0} 2 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Zn69 3 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} 1 x 10^{6} Zn69m (a) 3 x 10^{0} 6 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Zirconium (40) Zr88 3 x 10^{0} 3 x 10^{0} 1 x 10^{2} 1 x 10^{6} Zr93 Unlimited Unlimited 1 x 10^{3} (b) 1 x 10⁷ (b) Zr95 (a) 2 x 10^{0} 8 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{6} Zr97 (a) 4 x 10^{1} 4 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{1} (b) 1 x 10^{5} (b) A_{1} and/or A_{2} values for these parent radionuclides include contributions from their progeny with halflives less than 10 days, as listed in the following:
Mg28 Al28 Ar42 K42 Ca47 Sc47 Ti44 Sc44 Fe52 Mn52m Fe60 Co60m Zn69m Zn69 Ge68 Ga68 Rb83 Kr83m Sr82 Rb82 Sr90 Y90 Sr91 Y91m Sr92 Y92 Y87 Sr87m Zr95 Nb95m Zr97 Nb97m, Nb97 Mo99 Tc99m Tc95m Tc95 Tc96m Tc96 Ru103 Rh103m Ru106 Rh106 Pd103 Rh103m Ag108m Ag108 Ag110m Ag110 Cd115 In115m In114m In114 Sn113 In113m Sn121m Sn121 Sn126 Sb126m Te118 Sb118 Te127m Te127 Te129m Te129 Te131m Te131 Te132 I132 I135 Xe135m Xe122 I122 Cs137 Ba137m Ba131 Cs131 Ba140 La140 Ce144 Pr144m, Pr144 Pm148m Pm148 Gd146 Eu146 Dy166 Ho166 Hf172 Lu172 W178 Ta178 W188 Re188 Re189 Os189m Os194 Ir194 Ir189 Os189m Pt188 Ir188 Hg194 Au194 Hg195m Hg195 Pb210 Bi210 Pb212 Bi212, Tl208, Po212 Bi210m Tl206 Bi212 Tl208, Po212 At211 Po211 Rn222 Po218, Pb214, At218, Bi214, Po214 Ra223 Rn219, Po215, Pb211, Bi211, Po211, Tl207 Ra224 Rn220, Po216, Pb212, Bi212, Tl208, Po212 Ra225 Ac225, Fr221, At217, Bi213, Tl209, Po213, Pb209 Ra226 Rn222, Po218, Pb214, At218, Bi214, Po214 Ra228 Ac228 Ac225 Fr221, At217, Bi213, Tl209, Po213, Pb209 Ac227 Fr223 Th228 Ra224, Rn220, Po216, Pb212, Bi212, Tl208, Po212 Th234 Pa234m, Pa234 Pa230 Ac226, Th226, Fr222, Ra222, Rn218, Po214 U230 Th226, Ra222, Rn218, Po214 U235 Th231 Pu241 U237 Pu244 U240, Np240m Am242m Am242, Np238 Am243 Np239 Cm247 Pu243 Bk249 Am245 Cf253 Cm249 Parent nuclides and their progeny included in secular equilibrium are listed in the following:
Sr90 Y90 Zr93 Nb93m Zr97 Nb97 Ru106 Rh106 Ag108m Ag108 Cs137 Ba137m Ce144 Pr144 Ba140 La140 Bi212 Tl208 (0.36), Po212 (0.64) Pb210 Bi210, Po210 Pb212 Bi212, Tl208 (0.36), Po212 (0.64) Rn222 Po218, Pb214, Bi214, Po214 Ra223 Rn219, Po215, Pb211, Bi211, Tl207 Ra224 Rn220, Po216, Pb212, Bi212, Tl208 (0.36), Po212 (0.64) Ra226 Rn222, Po218, Pb214, Bi214, Po214, Pb210, Bi210, Po210 Ra228 Ac228 Th228 Ra224, Rn220, Po216, Pb212, Bi212, Tl208 (0.36), Po212 (0.64) Th229 Ra225, Ac225, Fr221, At217, Bi213, Po213, Pb209 Th (nat) Ra228, Ac228, Th228, Ra224, Rn220, Po216, Pb212, Bi212, Tl208 (0.36), Po212 (0.64) Th234 Pa234m U230 Th226, Ra222, Rn218, Po214 U232 Th228, Ra224, Rn220, Po216, Pb212, Bi212, Tl208 (0.36), Po212 (0.64) U235 Th231 U238 Th234, Pa234m U (nat) Th234, Pa234m, U234, Th230, Ra226, Rn222, Po218, Pb214, Bi214, Po214, Pb210, Bi210, Po210 Np237 Pa233 Am242m Am242 Am243 Np239 The quantity may be determined from a measurement of the rate of decay or a measurement of the radiation level at a prescribed distance from the source.
These values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UF_{6}, UO_{2}F_{2} and UO_{2}(NO_{3})_{2} in both normal and accident conditions of transport.
These values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UO_{3}, UF_{4}, UCl_{4} and hexavalent compounds in both normal and accident conditions of transport.
These values apply to all compounds of uranium other than those specified in (d) and (e) above.
These values apply to unirradiated uranium only.
 2.7.2.2.2

For individual radionuclides:
Which are not listed in table 2.7.2.2.1 the determination of the basic radionuclide values referred to in 2.7.2.2.1 shall require multilateral approval. For these radionuclides, activity concentration limits for exempt material and activity limits for exempt consignments shall be calculated in accordance with the principles established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No.115, IAEA, Vienna (1996). It is permissible to use an A_{2} value calculated using a dose coefficient for the appropriate lung absorption type as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, if the chemical forms of each radionuclide under both normal and accident conditions of transport are taken into consideration. Alternatively, the radionuclide values in table 2.7.2.2.2 may be used without obtaining competent authority approval;
In instruments or articles in which the radioactive material is enclosed or is included as a component part of the instrument or other manufactured article and which meet 2.7.2.4.1.3.3, alternative basic radionuclide values to those in table 2.7.2.2.1 for the activity limit for an exempt consignment are permitted and shall require multilateral approval. Such alternative activity limits for an exempt consignment shall be calculated in accordance with the principles set out in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No.115, IAEA, Vienna (1996).
Table 2.7.2.2.2  Basic radionuclide values for unknown radionuclides or mixtures Radioactive contents A_{1} A_{2} Activity concentration limit for exempt material Activity limit for exempt consignments (TBq) (TBq) (Bq/g) (Bq) Only beta or gamma emitting nuclides are known to be present 0.1 0.02 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{4} Alpha emitting nuclides but no neutron emitters are known to be present 0.2 9 x 10^{5} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3} Neutron emitting nuclides are known to be present or no relevant data are available 0.001 9 x 10^{5} 1 x 10^{1} 1 x 10^{3}  2.7.2.2.3
 In the calculations of A_{1} and A_{2} for a radionuclide not in table 2.7.2.2.1, a single radioactive decay chain in which the radionuclides are present in their naturally occurring proportions, and in which no daughter nuclide has a halflife either longer than 10 days or longer than that of the parent nuclide, shall be considered as a single radionuclide; and the activity to be taken into account and the A_{1} or A_{2} value to be applied shall be those corresponding to the parent nuclide of that chain. In the case of radioactive decay chains in which any daughter nuclide has a halflife either longer than 10 days or greater than that of the parent nuclide, the parent and such daughter nuclides shall be considered as mixtures of different nuclides.
 2.7.2.2.4

For mixtures of radionuclides, the basic radionuclide values referred to in 2.7.2.2.1 may be determined as follows:
\(X_m = \frac{1}{\sum\limits_i\frac{f(i)}{X(i)}}\)
where:
 f(i)
 is the fraction of activity or activity concentration of radionuclide i in the mixture;
 X(i)
 is the appropriate value of A_{1} or A_{2}, or the activity concentration limit for exempt material or the activity limit for an exempt consignment, as appropriate, for the radionuclide i; and
 X_{m}
 is the derived value of A_{1} or A_{2}, or the activity concentration limit for exempt material or the activity limit for an exempt consignment in the case of a mixture.
 2.7.2.2.5
 When the identity of each radionuclide is known but the individual activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the radionuclides may be grouped and the lowest radionuclide value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each group may be used in applying the formulae in 2.7.2.2.4 and 2.7.2.4.4. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity and the total beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the lowest radionuclide values for the alpha emitters or beta/gamma emitters, respectively.
 2.7.2.2.6
 For individual radionuclides or for mixtures of radionuclides for which relevant data are not available, the values shown in table 2.7.2.2.2 shall be used.
 2.7.2.3
 Determination of other material characteristics
 2.7.2.3.1
 Low specific activity (LSA) material
 2.7.2.3.1.1
 [Reserved]
 2.7.2.3.1.2

LSA material shall be in one of three groups:
LSAI
uranium and thorium ores and concentrates of such ores, and other ores containing naturally occurring radionuclides;
Natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium or their compounds or mixtures, that are unirradiated and in solid or liquid form;
radioactive material for which the A_{2} value is unlimited. Fissile material may be included only if excepted under 2.7.2.3.5; or
other radioactive material in which the activity is distributed throughout and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 30 times the values for activity concentration specified in 2.7.2.2.1 to 2.7.2.2.6. Fissile material may be included only if excepted under 2.7.2.3.5;
LSAII
water with tritium concentration up to 0.8 TBq/L;
other material in which the activity is distributed throughout and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 10^{4}A_{2}/g for solids and gases, and 10^{5}A_{2}/g for liquids;
LSAIII  Solids (e.g. consolidated wastes, activated materials), excluding powders, that meet the requirements of 2.7.2.3.1.3, in which:
the radioactive material is distributed throughout a solid or a collection of solid objects, or is essentially uniformly distributed in a solid compact binding agent (such as concrete, bitumen and ceramic);
the radioactive material is relatively insoluble, or it is intrinsically contained in a relatively insoluble matrix, so that, even under loss of packaging, the loss of radioactive material per package by leaching when placed in water for seven days would not exceed 0.1A_{2}; and
the estimated average specific activity of the solid, excluding any shielding material, does not exceed 2 x 10^{3}A_{2}/g.
 2.7.2.3.1.3
 LSAIII material shall be a solid of such a nature that, if the entire contents of a package were subjected to the test specified in 2.7.2.3.1.4, the activity in the water would not exceed 0.1A_{2}.
 2.7.2.3.1.4

LSAIII material shall be tested as follows:
A solid material sample representing the entire contents of the package shall be immersed for 7 days in water at ambient temperature. The volume of water to be used in the test shall be sufficient to ensure that at the end of the 7day test period the free volume of the unabsorbed and unreacted water remaining shall be at least 10% of the volume of the solid test sample itself. The water shall have an initial pH of 6 to 8 and a maximum conductivity of 1 mS/m at 20ºC. The total activity of the free volume of water shall be measured following the 7day immersion of the test sample.
 2.7.2.3.1.5
 Demonstration of compliance with the performance standards in 2.7.2.3.1.4 shall be in accordance with 6.4.12.1 and 6.4.12.2.
 2.7.2.3.2

Surface contaminated object (SCO)
SCO is classified in one of two groups:
SCOI: A solid object on which:
the nonfixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm^{2} (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm^{2}) does not exceed 4 Bq/cm^{2} for beta and gamma emitters and lowtoxicity alpha emitters, or 0.4 Bq/cm^{2} for all other alpha emitters;
the fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm^{2} (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm^{2}) does not exceed 4 x 10^{4} Bq/cm^{2} for beta and gamma emitters and lowtoxicity alpha emitters, or 4 x 10^{3} Bq/cm^{2} for all other alpha emitters; or
the nonfixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm^{2} (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm^{2}) does not exceed 4 x 10^{4} Bq/cm^{2} for beta and gamma emitters and lowtoxicity alpha emitters, or 4 x 10^{3} Bq/cm^{2} for all other alpha emitters;
SCOII: A solid object on which either the fixed or nonfixed contamination on the surface exceeds the applicable limits specified for SCOI in 2.7.2.3.2.1 above and on which:
the nonfixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm^{2} (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm^{2}) does not exceed 400 Bq/cm^{2} for beta and gamma emitters and lowtoxicity alpha emitters, or 40 Bq/cm^{2} for all other alpha emitters;
the fixed contamination on the accessible surface, averaged over 300 cm^{2} (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm^{2}) does not exceed 8 x 10^{5} Bq/cm^{2} for beta and gamma emitters and lowtoxicity alpha emitters, or 8 x 10^{4} Bq/cm^{2} for all other alpha emitters; or
the nonfixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm^{2} (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm^{2}) does not exceed 8 x 10^{5} Bq/cm^{2} for beta and gamma emitters and lowtoxicity alpha emitters, or 8 x 10^{4} Bq/cm^{2} for all other alpha emitters.
 2.7.2.3.3
 Special form radioactive material
 2.7.2.3.3.1

Special form radioactive material shall have at least one dimension not less than 5 mm.
When a sealed capsule constitutes part of the special form radioactive material, the capsule shall be so manufactured that it can be opened only by destroying it.
The design for special form radioactive material requires unilateral approval.
 2.7.2.3.3.2

Special form radioactive material shall be of such a nature or shall be so designed that if it is subjected to the tests specified in 2.7.2.3.3.4 to 2.7.2.3.3.8, it shall meet the following requirements:
It would not break or shatter under the impact, percussion and bending tests 2.7.2.3.3.5.1, 2.7.2.3.3.5.2, 2.7.2.3.3.5.3, and 2.7.2.3.3.6.1 as applicable;
It would not melt or disperse in the applicable heat test 2.7.2.3.3.5.4 or 2.7.2.3.3.6.2 as applicable; and
The activity in the water from the leaching tests specified in 2.7.2.3.3.7 and 2.7.2.3.3.8 would not exceed 2 kBq; or alternatively for sealed sources, the leakage rate for the volumetric leakage assessment test specified in ISO 9978:1992, Radiation protection  Sealed radioactive sources  Leakage test methods, would not exceed the applicable acceptance threshold acceptable to the competent authority.
 2.7.2.3.3.3
 Demonstration of compliance with the performance standards in 2.7.2.3.3.2 shall be in accordance with 6.4.12.1 and 6.4.12.2.
 2.7.2.3.3.4
 Specimens that comprise or simulate special form radioactive material shall be subjected to the impact test, the percussion test, the bending test, and the heat test specified in 2.7.2.3.3.5 or alternative tests as authorized in 2.7.2.3.3.6. A different specimen may be used for each of the tests. Following each test, a leaching assessment or volumetric leakage test shall be performed on the specimen by a method no less sensitive than the methods given in 2.7.2.3.3.7 for indispersible solid material or 2.7.2.3.3.8 for encapsulated material.
 2.7.2.3.3.5

The relevant test methods are:
Impact test: The specimen shall drop onto the target from a height of 9 m. The target shall be as defined in 6.4.14;
Percussion test: The specimen shall be placed on a sheet of lead which is supported by a smooth solid surface and struck by the flat face of a mild steel bar so as to cause an impact equivalent to that resulting from a free drop of 1.4 kg through 1 m. The lower part of the bar shall be 25 mm in diameter with the edges rounded off to a radius of (3.0 ± 0.3) mm. The lead, of hardness number 3.5 to 4.5 on the Vickers scale and not more than 25 mm thick, shall cover an area greater than that covered by the specimen. A fresh surface of lead shall be used for each impact. The bar shall strike the specimen so as to cause maximum damage;
Bending test: The test shall apply only to long, slender sources with both a minimum length of 10 cm and a length to minimum width ratio of not less than 10. The specimen shall be rigidly clamped in a horizontal position so that one half of its length protrudes from the face of the clamp. The orientation of the specimen shall be such that the specimen will suffer maximum damage when its free end is struck by the flat face of a steel bar. The bar shall strike the specimen so as to cause an impact equivalent to that resulting from a free vertical drop of 1.4 kg through 1 m. The lower part of the bar shall be 25 mm in diameter with the edges rounded off to a radius of (3.0 ± 0.3) mm;
Heat test: The specimen shall be heated in air to a temperature of 800ºC and held at that temperature for a period of 10 minutes and shall then be allowed to cool.
 2.7.2.3.3.6

Specimens that comprise or simulate radioactive material enclosed in a sealed capsule may be excepted from:
The tests prescribed in 2.7.2.3.3.5.1 and 2.7.2.3.3.5.2 provided that the specimens are alternatively subjected to the impact test prescribed in ISO 2919:2012, Radiation Protection  Sealed Radioactive Sources  General requirements and classification:
the class 4 impact test if the mass of the special form radioactive material is less than 200 g; and
the class 5 impact test if the mass of the special form radioactive material is equal to or more than 200 g but is less than 500 g.
The test prescribed in 2.7.2.3.3.5.4 provided they are alternatively subjected to the class 6 temperature test specified in ISO 2919:2012, Radiation protection  Sealed radioactive sources  General requirements and classification.
 2.7.2.3.3.7

For specimens which comprise or simulate indispersible solid material, a leaching assessment shall be performed as follows:
The specimen shall be immersed for 7 days in water at ambient temperature. The volume of water to be used in the test shall be sufficient to ensure that at the end of the 7day test period the free volume of the unabsorbed and unreacted water remaining shall be at least 10% of the volume of the solid test sample itself. The water shall have an initial pH of 6 to 8 and a maximum conductivity of 1 mS/m at 20ºC;
The water with specimen shall then be heated to a temperature of (50 ± 5)ºC and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours;
The activity of the water shall then be determined;
The specimen shall then be kept for at least 7 days in still air at not less than 30ºC and relative humidity not less than 90%;
The specimen shall then be immersed in water of the same specification as in 2.7.2.3.3.7.1 above and the water with the specimen heated to (50 ± 5)ºC and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours;
The activity of the water shall then be determined.
 2.7.2.3.3.8

For specimens which comprise or simulate radioactive material enclosed in a sealed capsule, either a leaching assessment or a volumetric leakage assessment shall be performed as follows:
The leaching assessment shall consist of the following steps:
the specimen shall be immersed in water at ambient temperature. The water shall have an initial pH of 6 to 8 with a maximum conductivity of 1 mS/m at 20ºC;
the water and specimen shall be heated to a temperature of (50 ± 5)ºC and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours;
the activity of the water shall then be determined;
the specimen shall then be kept for at least 7 days in still air at not less than 30ºC and relative humidity of not less than 90%;
the process in .1, .2 and .3 shall be repeated.
The alternative volumetric leakage assessment shall comprise any of the tests prescribed in ISO 9978:1992, Radiation protection  Sealed radioactive sources  Leakage test methods provided that they are acceptable to the competent authority.
 2.7.2.3.4
 Low dispersible material
 2.7.2.3.4.1

The design for low dispersible radioactive material shall require multilateral approval. Low dispersible radioactive material shall be such that the total amount of this radioactive material in a package, taking into account the provisions of 6.4.8.14, shall meet the following provisions:
The radiation level at 3 m from the unshielded radioactive material does not exceed 10 mSv/h;
If subjected to the tests specified in 6.4.20.3 and 6.4.20.4, the airborne release in gaseous and particulate forms of up to 100 µm aerodynamic equivalent diameter would not exceed 100A_{2}. A separate specimen may be used for each test; and
If subjected to the test specified in 2.7.2.3.1.4, the activity in the water would not exceed 100A_{2}. In the application of this test, the damaging effects of the tests specified in 2.7.2.3.4.1.2 above shall be taken into account.
 2.7.2.3.4.2

Low dispersible material shall be tested as follows:
A specimen that comprises or simulates low dispersible radioactive material shall be subjected to the enhanced thermal test specified in 6.4.20.3 and the impact test specified in 6.4.20.4. A different specimen may be used for each of the tests. Following each test, the specimen shall be subjected to the leach test specified in 2.7.2.3.1.4. After each test it shall be determined if the applicable provisions of 2.7.2.3.4.1 have been met.
 2.7.2.3.4.3
 Demonstration of compliance with the performance standards in 2.7.2.3.4.1 and 2.7.2.3.4.2 shall be in accordance with 6.4.12.1 and 6.4.12.2.
 2.7.2.3.5

Fissile material
Fissile material and packages containing fissile material shall be classified under the relevant entry as "FISSILE" in accordance with table 2.7.2.1.1 unless excepted by one of the provisions of subparagraphs .1 to .6 below and transported subject to the requirements of 5.1.5.5. All provisions apply only to material in packages that meets the requirements of 6.4.7.2 unless unpackaged material is specifically allowed in the provision.
uranium enriched in uranium235 to a maximum of 1% by mass, and with a total plutonium and uranium233 content not exceeding 1% of the mass of uranium235, provided that the fissile nuclides are distributed essentially homogeneously throughout the material. In addition, if uranium235 is present in metallic, oxide or carbide forms, it shall not form a lattice arrangement;
liquid solutions of uranyl nitrate enriched in uranium235 to a maximum of 2% by mass, with a total plutonium and uranium233 content not exceeding 0.002% of the mass of uranium, and with a minimum nitrogen to uranium atomic ratio (N/U) of 2;
uranium with a maximum uranium enrichment of 5% by mass uranium235 provided:
there is no more than 3.5 g of uranium235 per package;
the total plutonium and uranium233 content does not exceed 1% of the mass of uranium235 per package;
Transport of the package is subject to the consignment limit provided in 5.1.5.5.3;
fissile nuclides with a total mass not greater than 2 g per package provided the package is transported subject to the consignment limit provided in 5.1.5.5.4;
fissile nuclides with a total mass not greater than 45 g either packaged or unpackaged subject to limits provided in 5.1.5.5.5;
a fissile material that meets the requirements of 5.1.5.5.2, 2.7.2.3.6 and 5.1.5.2.1.
 2.7.2.3.6

A fissile material excepted from classification as "FISSILE" under 2.7.2.3.5.6 shall be subcritical without the need for accumulation control under the following conditions:
 2.7.2.4

Classification of packages or unpacked material
The quantity of radioactive material in a package shall not exceed the relevant limits for the package type as specified below.
 2.7.2.4.1
 Classification as excepted package
 2.7.2.4.1.1

A package may be classified as an excepted package if it meets one of the following conditions:
it is an empty package having contained radioactive material;
it contains instruments or articles not exceeding the activity limits specified in columns (2) and (3) of table 2.7.2.4.1.2;
it contains articles manufactured of natural uranium, depleted uranium or natural thorium;
it contains radioactive material not exceeding the activity limits specified in column (4) of table 2.7.2.4.1.2; or
it contains less than 0.1 kg of uranium hexafluoride not exceeding the activity limits specified in column (4) of table 2.7.2.4.1.2.
 2.7.2.4.1.2

A package containing radioactive material may be classified as an excepted package provided that the radiation level at any point on its external surface does not exceed 5 µSv/h.
Table 2.7.2.4.1.2  Activity limits for excepted packages Physical state of contents Instruments or article Materials package limits^{a} Item limits^{a} Package limits^{a} (1) (2) (3) (4) Solids special form 10^{2} A_{1} A_{1} 10^{3} A_{1} other form 10^{2}A_{2} A_{2} 10^{3} A_{2} Liquids 10^{3} A_{2} 10^{1} A_{2} 10^{4} A_{2} Gases tritium 2 x 10^{2} A_{2} 2 x 10^{1} A_{2} 2 x 10^{2} A_{2} special form 10^{3} A_{1} 10^{2} A_{1} 10^{3} A_{1} other forms 10^{3} A_{2} 10^{2} A_{2} 10^{3} A_{2} ^{a} For mixtures of radionuclides, see 2.7.2.2.4 to 2.7.2.2.6.
 2.7.2.4.1.3

Radioactive material which is enclosed in or is included as a component part of an instrument or other manufactured article may be classified under UN 2911, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE  INSTRUMENTS or ARTICLES provided that:
the radiation level at 10 cm from any point on the external surface of any unpackaged instrument or article is not greater than 0.1 mSv/h; and
each instrument or manufactured article bears the mark "RADIOACTIVE" on its external surface except for the following:
radioluminescent timepieces or devices;
consumer products that either have received regulatory approval in accordance with 1.5.1.4.5 or do not individually exceed the activity limit for an exempt consignment in table 2.7.2.2.1 (column 5), provided such products are transported in a package that bears the mark "RADIOACTIVE" on its internal surface in such a manner that a warning of the presence of radioactive material is visible on opening the package;
other instruments or articles too small to bear the mark "RADIOACTIVE", provided that they are transported in a package that bears the mark "RADIOACTIVE" on its internal surface in such a manner that a warning of the presence of radioactive material is visible on opening the package; and
the active material is completely enclosed by nonactive components (a device performing the sole function of containing radioactive material shall not be considered to be an instrument or manufactured article); and
the limits specified in columns 2 and 3 of table 2.7.2.4.1.2 are met for each individual item and each package, respectively.
 2.7.2.4.1.4

Radioactive material in forms other than as specified in 2.7.2.4.1.3 and with an activity not exceeding the limits specified in column 4 of table 2.7.2.4.1.2, may be classified under UN 2910, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE  LIMITED QUANTITY OF MATERIAL provided that:
the package retains its radioactive contents under routine conditions of transport; and
the package bears the mark "RADIOACTIVE" on either:
an internal surface in such a manner that a warning of the presence of radioactive material is visible on opening the package; or
the outside of the package, where it is impractical to mark an internal surface.
 2.7.2.4.1.5

Uranium hexafluoride not exceeding the limits specified in column 4 of table 2.7.2.4.1.2 may be classified under UN 3507 URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE, less than 0.1 kg per package, nonfissile or fissileexcepted provided that:
the mass of uranium hexafluoride in the package is less than 0.1 kg; and
the conditions of 2.7.2.4.5.1 and 2.7.2.4.1.4.1 and 2.7.2.4.1.4.2 are met.
 2.7.2.4.1.6
 Articles manufactured of natural uranium, depleted uranium or natural thorium and articles in which the sole radioactive material is unirradiated natural uranium, unirradiated depleted uranium or unirradiated natural thorium may be classified under UN 2909, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE  ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM NATURAL URANIUM or DEPLETED URANIUM or NATURAL THORIUM, provided that the outer surface of the uranium or thorium is enclosed in an inactive sheath made of metal or some other substantial material.
 2.7.2.4.1.7

An empty packaging which had previously contained radioactive material may be classified under UN 2908, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE  EMPTY PACKAGING, provided that:
it is in a wellmaintained condition and securely closed;
the outer surface of any uranium or thorium in its structure is covered with an inactive sheath made of metal or some other substantial material;
the level of internal nonfixed contamination, when averaged over any 300 cm^{2}, does not exceed:
400 Bq/cm^{2} for beta and gamma emitters and lowtoxicity alpha emitters; and
40 Bq/cm^{2} for all other alpha emitters; and
any labels which may have been displayed on it in conformity with 5.2.2.1.12.1 are no longer visible.
 2.7.2.4.2

Classification as Low specific activity (LSA) material
Radioactive material may only be classified as LSA material if the definition of LSA in 2.7.1.3 and the conditions of 2.7.2.3.1, 4.1.9.2 and 7.1.4.5.1 are met.
 2.7.2.4.3

Classification as Surface contaminated object (SCO)
Radioactive material may be classified as SCO if the definition of SCO in 2.7.1.3 and the conditions of 2.7.2.3.2, 4.1.9.2 and 7.1.4.5.1 are met.
 2.7.2.4.4

Classification as Type A package
Packages containing radioactive material may be classified as Type A packages provided that the following conditions are met:
Type A packages shall not contain activities greater than either of the following:
for special form radioactive material  A₁;
for all other radioactive material  A₂.
For mixtures of radionuclides whose identities and respective activities are known, the following condition shall apply to the radioactive contents of a Type A package:
\(\sum\limits_i\frac{B(i)}{A_1(i)} + \sum\limits_j\frac{C(j)}{A_2(j)} \leq 1\)
where:
 B(i)
 is the activity of radionuclide i as special form radioactive material;
 A_{1}(i)
 is the A_{1} value for radionuclide i;
 C(j)
 is the activity of radionuclide j as other than special form radioactive material;
 A_{2}(j)
 is the A_{2} value for radionuclide j.
 2.7.2.4.5
 Classification of uranium hexafluoride
 2.7.2.4.5.1

Uranium hexafluoride shall only be assigned to:
 2.7.2.4.5.2

The contents of a package containing uranium hexafluoride shall comply with the following requirements:
for UN Nos. 2977 and 2978, the mass of uranium hexafluoride shall not be different from that allowed for the package design, and for UN 3507, the mass of uranium hexafluoride shall be less than 0.1 kg;
the mass of uranium hexafluoride shall not be greater than a value that would lead to an ullage smaller than 5% at the maximum temperature of the package as specified for the plant systems where the package shall be used; and
the uranium hexafluoride shall be in solid form and the internal pressure shall not be above atmospheric pressure when presented for transport.
 2.7.2.4.6
 Classification as Type B(U), Type B(M) or Type C packages
 2.7.2.4.6.1
 Packages not otherwise classified in 2.7.2.4 (2.7.2.4.1 to 2.7.2.4.5) shall be classified in accordance with the competent authority certificate of approval for the package issued by the country of origin of design.
 2.7.2.4.6.2
 The contents of a Type B(U), Type B(M) or Type C package shall be as specified in the certificate of approval.
 2.7.2.5

Special arrangements
Radioactive material shall be classified as transported under special arrangement when it is intended to be transported in accordance with 1.5.4.