Chapter 2.0


Introduction

Note:
For the purposes of this Code, it has been necessary to classify dangerous goods in different classes, to subdivide a number of these classes and to define and describe characteristics and properties of the substances, materials and articles which would fall within each class or division. Moreover, in accordance with the criteria for the selection of marine pollutants for the purposes of Annex III of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL), a number of dangerous substances in the various classes have also been identified as substances harmful to the marine environment (MARINE POLLUTANTS).
2.0.0
Responsibilities
2.0.0.1
The classification shall be made by the shipper/consignor or by the appropriate competent authority where specified in this Code.
2.0.0.2

A consignor who has identified, on the basis of test data, that a substance listed by name in column 2 of the Dangerous Goods List in chapter 3.2 meets classification criteria for a hazard class or division that is not identified in the list, may, with the approval of the competent authority, consign the substance:

  • under the most appropriate "generic" or "not otherwise specified" (N.O.S.) entry reflecting all hazards; or

  • under the same UN number and name but with additional hazard communication information as appropriate to reflect the additional subsidiary risk(s) (documentation, label, placard) provided that the primary hazard class remains unchanged and that any other transport conditions (e.g. limited quantity, packaging and tank provisions) that would normally apply to substances possessing such a combination of hazards are the same as those applicable to the substance listed.

Note: When a competent authority grants such approvals,it should inform the United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods1 accordingly and submit a relevant proposal of amendment to the Dangerous Goods List. Should the proposed amendment be rejected, the competent authority should withdraw its approval.

2.0.1
Classes, divisions, packing groups
2.0.1.1

Definitions

Substances (including mixtures and solutions) and articles subject to the provisions of this Code are assigned to one of the classes 1-9 according to the hazard or the most predominant of the hazards they present. Some of these classes are subdivided into divisions. These classes or divisions are as listed below:

Class 1:

Explosives

Division 1.1:
substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.2:
substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3:
substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.4:
substances and articles which present no significant hazard
Division 1.5:
very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.6:
extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard
Class 2:

Gases

Class 2.1:
flammable gases
Class 2.2:
non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Class 2.3:
toxic gases
Class 3:
Flammable liquids
Class 4:

Flammable solids; substances liable to spontaneous combustion; substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases

Class 4.1:
flammable solids, self-reactive substances, solid desensitized explosives and polymerizing substances
Class 4.2:
substances liable to spontaneous combustion
Class 4.3:
substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
Class 5:

Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides

Class 5.1:
oxidizing substances
Class 5.2:
organic peroxides
Class 6:

Toxic and infectious substances

Class 6.1:
toxic substances
Class 6.2:
infectious substances
Class 7:
Radioactive material
Class 8:
Corrosive substances
Class 9:
Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles

The numerical order of the classes and divisions is not that of the degree of danger.

2.0.1.2
Marine pollutants
2.0.1.2.1
Many of the substances assigned to classes 1 to 6.2, 8 and 9 are deemed as being marine pollutants (see chapter 2.10).
2.0.1.2.2
Known marine pollutants are noted in the Dangerous Goods List and are indicated in the Index.
2.0.1.3

For packing purposes, substances other than those of classes 1, 2, 5.2, 6.2 and 7, and other than self-reactive substances of class 4.1, are assigned to three packing groups in accordance with the degree of danger they present:

  • Packing group I: substances presenting high danger;
  • Packing group II: substances presenting medium danger; and
  • Packing group III: substances presenting low danger.

The packing group to which a substance is assigned is indicated in the Dangerous Goods List in chapter 3.2.

Articles are not assigned to packing groups. For packing purposes, any requirement for a specific packaging performance level is set out in the applicable packing instruction.

2.0.1.4
Dangerous goods are determined to present one or more of the dangers represented by classes 1 to 9, marine pollutants and, if applicable, the degree of danger (packing group) on the basis of the provisions in chapters 2.1 to 2.10.
2.0.1.5
Dangerous goods presenting a danger of a single class or division are assigned to that class or division and the packing group, if applicable, determined. When an article or substance is specifically listed by name in the Dangerous Goods List in chapter 3.2, its class or division, its subsidiary risk(s) and, when applicable, its packing group are taken from this list.
2.0.1.6
Dangerous goods meeting the defining criteria of more than one hazard class or division and which are not listed by name in the Dangerous Goods List are assigned to a class or division and subsidiary risk(s) on the basis of the precedence of hazard provisions prescribed in 2.0.3.
2.0.2
UN Numbers and Proper Shipping Names
2.0.2.1
Dangerous goods are assigned to UN Numbers and Proper Shipping Names according to their hazard classification and their composition.
2.0.2.2

Dangerous goods commonly transported are listed in the Dangerous Goods List in chapter 3.2. Where an article or substance is specifically listed by name, it shall be identified in transport by the Proper Shipping Name in the Dangerous Goods List. Such substances may contain technical impurities (for example those deriving from the production process) or additives for stability or other purposes that do not affect their classification. However, a substance listed by name containing technical impurities or additives for stability or other purposes affecting its classification shall be considered a mixture or solution (see2.0). For dangerous goods not specifically listed by name, "generic" or "not otherwise specified" entries are provided (see 2.0) to identify the article or substance in transport. The substances listed by name in column (2) of the Dangerous Goods List of chapter 3.2 shall be transported according to their classification in the list or under the conditions specified in 2.0.0.2.

Each entry in the Dangerous Goods List is assigned a UN Number. This list also contains relevant information for each entry, such as hazard class, subsidiary risk(s) (if any), packing group (where assigned), packing and tank transport provisions, EmS, segregation and stowage, properties and observations, etc.

Entries in the Dangerous Goods List are of the following four types:

  1. single entries for well-fefined substances or articles:

    e.g. UN 1090 acetone
    UN 1194 ethyl nitrate solution
  2. generic entries for well-fefined groups of substances or articles:

    e.g. UN 1133 adhesives
    UN 1266 perfumery product
    UN 2757 carbamate pesticide, solid, toxic
    UN 3101 organic peroxide type B, liquid
  3. specific N.O.S. entries covering a group of substances or articles of a particular chemical or technical nature:

    e.g. UN 1477 nitrates, inorganic, N.O.S.
    UN 1987 alcohols, N.O.S.
  4. general N.O.S. entries covering a group of substances or articles meeting the criteria of one or more classes:

    e.g. UN 1325 flammable solid, organic, N.O.S.
    UN 1993 flammable liquid, N.O.S.
2.0.2.3
All self-reactive substances of class 4.1 are assigned to one of 20 generic entries in accordance with the classification principles described in 2.4.
2.0.2.4
All organic peroxides of class 5.2 are assigned to one of 20 generic entries in accordance with the classification principles described in 2.5.
2.0.2.5

A mixture or solution meeting the classification criteria of this Code composed of a single predominant substance identified by name in the Dangerous Goods List and one or more substances not subject to the provisions of this Code and/or traces of one or more substances identified by name in the Dangerous Goods List, shall be assigned the UN Number and Proper Shipping Name of the predominant substance named in the Dangerous Goods List unless:

  1. the mixture or solution is identified by name in the Dangerous Goods List;

  2. the name and description of the substance named in the Dangerous Goods List specifically indicate that they apply only to the pure substance;

  3. the hazard class or division, subsidiary risk(s), packing group, or physical state of the mixture or solution is different from that of the substance named in the Dangerous Goods List; or

  4. the hazard characteristics and properties of the mixture or solution necessitate emergency response measures that are different from those required for the substance identified by name in the Dangerous Goods List.

In those other cases, except the one described in .1, the mixture or solution shall be treated as a dangerous substance not specifically listed by name in the Dangerous Goods List.

2.0.2.6
When the class, physical state or packing group has changed in comparison with the pure substance, the solution or mixture shall be shipped in accordance with the provisions for the changed hazard under an appropriate N.O.S. entry.
2.0.2.7
Substances or articles which are not specifically listed by name in the Dangerous Goods List shall be classified under a "generic" or "not otherwise specified" (N.O.S.) Proper Shipping Name. The substance or article shall be classified according to the class definitions and test criteria in this part, and the article or substance classified under the generic or "N.O.S." Proper Shipping Name in the Dangerous Goods List which most appropriately describes the article or substance. This means that a substance is only to be assigned to an entry of type .3, as defined in 2.0.2.2, if it cannot be assigned to an entry of type .2, and to an entry of type .4 if it cannot be assigned to an entry of type .2 or .3.2
2.0.2.8
When considering a solution or mixture in accordance with 2.0.2.5, due account shall be given to whether the dangerous constituent comprising the solution or mixture has been identified as a marine pollutant. If this is the case, the provisions of chapter 2.10 are also applicable.
2.0.2.9
A mixture or solution, containing one or more substances identified by name in this Code or classified under an N.O.S. or generic entry and one or more substances not subject to the provisions of this Code, is not subject to the provisions of this Code if the hazard characteristics of the mixture or solution are such that they do not meet the criteria (including human experience criteria) for any class.
2.0.2.10
A mixture or solution meeting the classification criteria of this Code that is not identified by name in the Dangerous Goods List and that is composed of two or more dangerous goods shall be assigned to an entry that has the Proper Shipping Name, description, hazard class or division, subsidiary risk(s) and packing group that most precisely describe the mixture or solution.
2.0.3
Classification of substances, mixtures and solutions with multiple hazards (precedence of hazard characteristics)
2.0.3.1
The table of precedence of hazard characteristics in 2.0.3.6 shall be used to determine the class of a substance, mixture or solution having more than one hazard when it is not specifically listed by name in this Code. For substances, mixtures or solutions having multiple hazards which are not specifically listed by name, the most stringent packing group of those assigned to the respective hazards of the goods takes precedence over other packing groups, irrespective of the precedence of hazard table in 2.0.3.6.
2.0.3.2
The precedence of hazard table indicates which of the hazards shall be regarded as the primary hazard. The class which appears at the intersection of the horizontal line and the vertical column is the primary hazard and the remaining class is the subsidiary hazard. The packing groups for each of the hazards associated with the substance, mixture or solution shall be determined by reference to the appropriate criteria. The most stringent of the groups so indicated shall then become the packing group of the substance, mixture or solution.
2.0.3.3
The Proper Shipping Name (see 3.1.2) of a substance, mixture or solution when classified in accordance with 2.0.3.1 and 2.0.3.2 shall be the most appropriate N.O.S. ("not otherwise specified") entry in this Code for the class shown as the primary hazard.
2.0.3.4

The precedence of hazard characteristics of the following substances, materials and articles have not been dealt with in the precedence of hazard table, as these primary hazards always take precedence:

  1. substances and articles of class 1;

  2. gases of class 2;

  3. liquid desensitized explosives of class 3;

  4. self-reactive substances and solid desensitized explosives of class 4.1;

  5. pyrophoric substances of class 4.2;

  6. substances of class 5.2;

  7. substances of class 6.1 with a packing group I vapour inhalation toxicity;

  8. substances of class 6.2; and

  9. materials of class 7.

2.0.3.5
Apart from excepted radioactive material (where the other hazardous properties take precedence), radioactive material having other hazardous properties shall always be classified in class 7, with the greatest of the additional hazards being identified. For radioactive material in excepted packages, except for UN 3507, URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE, RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE, special provision 290 of chapter 3.3 applies.
2.0.3.6

Precedence of hazards

Class and Packing Group 4.2 4.3 5.1 I 5.1 II 5.1 III 6.1, I Dermal 6.1, I Oral 6.1 II 6.1 III 8, I Liquid 8, I Solid 8, II Liquid 8, II Solid 8, III Liquid 8, III Solid
3 I* 4.3 3 3 3 3 3 - 3 - 3 -
3 II* 4.3 3 3 3 3 8 - 3 - 3 -
3 III* 4.3 6.1 6.1 6.1 3 8 - 8 - 3 -
4.1 II* 4.2 4.3 5.1 4.1 4.1 6.1 6.1 4.1 4.1 - 8 - 4.1 - 4.1
4.1 III* 4.2 4.3 5.1 4.1 4.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 4.1 - 8 - 8 - 4.1
4.2 II 4.3 5.1 4.2 4.2 6.1 6.1 4.2 4.2 8 8 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2
4.2 III 4.3 5.1 5.1 4.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 4.2 8 8 8 8 4.2 4.2
4.3 I 5.1 4.3 4.3 6.1 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3
4.3 II 5.1 4.3 4.3 6.1 4.3 4.3 4.3 8 8 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3
4.3 III 5.1 5.1 4.3 6.1 6.1 6.1 4.3 8 8 8 8 4.3 4.3
5.1 I 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1
5.1 II 6.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 8 8 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1
5.1 III 6.1 6.1 6.1 5.1 8 8 8 8 5.1 5.1
6.1 I, Dermal 8 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1
6.1 I, Oral 8 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1
6.1 II, Inhalation 8 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1
6.1 II, Dermal 8 6.1 8 6.1 6.1 6.1
6.1 II, oral 8 8 8 6.1 6.1 6.1
6.1 III 8 8 8 8 8 8

* Substances of class 4.1 other than self-reactive substances and solid desensitized explosives and substances of class 3 other than liquid desensitized explosives.

6.1 for pesticides.

- Denotes an impossible combination.

For hazards not shown in this table, see 2.0.3.4 and 2.0.3.5.

2.0.4
Transport of samples
2.0.4.1

When the hazard class of a substance is uncertain and it is being transported for further testing, a tentative hazard class, Proper Shipping Name and identification number shall be assigned on the basis of the consignor's knowledge of the substances and application of:

  1. the classification criteria of this Code; and

  2. the precedence of hazards given in 2.0.3.

The most severe packing group possible for the Proper Shipping Name chosen shall be used.

Where this provision is used, the Proper Shipping Name shall be supplemented with the word "SAMPLE" (such as FLAMMABLE LIQUID, N.O.S., SAMPLE). In certain instances, where a specific Proper Shipping Name is provided for a sample of a substance considered to meet certain classification criteria (such as UN 3167, GAS SAMPLE, NON-PRESSURIZED, FLAMMABLE), that Proper Shipping Name shall be used. When an N.O.S. entry is used to transport the sample, the Proper Shipping Name need not be supplemented with the technical name as required by special provision 274.

2.0.4.2

Samples of the substance shall be transported in accordance with the provisions applicable to the tentative assigned Proper Shipping Name provided:

  1. the substance is not considered to be a substance prohibited for transport by 1.1.3;

  2. the substance is not considered to meet the criteria for class 1 or considered to be an infectious substance or a radioactive material;

  3. the substance is in compliance with 2.4.2.3.2.4.2 or 2.5.3.2.5.1 if it is a self-reactive substance or an organic peroxide, respectively;

  4. the sample is transported in a combination packaging with a net mass per package not exceeding 2.5 kg; and

  5. the sample is not packed together with other goods.

2.0.5
Transport of wastes
2.0.5.1

Preamble

Wastes, which are dangerous goods, shall be transported in accordance with the relevant international recommendations and conventions and, in particular, where it concerns transport by sea, with the provisions of this Code.

2.0.5.2
Applicability
2.0.5.2.1
The provisions of this chapter are applicable to the transport of wastes by ships and shall be considered in conjunction with all other provisions of this Code.
2.0.5.2.2
Substances, solutions, mixtures or articles containing or contaminated with radioactive material are subject to the applicable provisions for radioactive material in class 7, and are not to be considered as wastes for the purposes of this chapter.
2.0.5.3
Transboundary movements under the Basel Convention3
2.0.5.3.1

Transboundary movement of wastes is permitted to commence only when:

  1. notification has been sent by the competent authority of the country of origin, or by the generator or exporter through the channel of the competent authority of the country of origin, to the country of final destination; and

  2. the competent authority of the country of origin, having received the written consent of the country of final destination stating that the wastes will be safely incinerated or treated by other methods of disposal, has given authorization to the movement.

2.0.5.3.2
In addition to the transport document required in chapter 5.4, all transboundary movements of wastes shall be accompanied by a waste movement document from the point at which a transboundary movement commences to the point of disposal. This document shall be available at all times to the competent authorities and to all persons involved in the management of waste transport operations.
2.0.5.3.3
The transport of solid wastes in bulk in cargo transport units and road vehicles is only permitted with the approval of the competent authority of the country of origin.
2.0.5.3.4
In the event that packages and cargo transport units containing wastes are suffering from leakage or spillage, the competent authorities of the countries of origin and destination shall be immediately informed and advice on the action to be taken obtained from them.
2.0.5.4
Classification of wastes
2.0.5.4.1
A waste containing only one constituent which is a dangerous substance subject to the provisions of this Code shall be regarded as being that particular substance. If the concentration of the constituent is such that the waste continues to present a hazard inherent in the constituent itself, it shall be classified according to the criteria of the applicable classes.
2.0.5.4.2
A waste containing two or more constituents which are dangerous substances subject to the provisions of this Code shall be classified under the applicable class in accordance with their dangerous characteristics and properties as described in 2.0.5.4.3 and 2.0.5.4.4.
2.0.5.4.3

The classification according to the dangerous characteristics and properties shall be carried out as follows:

  1. determination of the physical and chemical characteristics and physiological properties by measurement or calculation followed by classification according to the criteria of the applicable class(es); or

  2. if the determination is not practicable, the waste shall be classified according to the constituent presenting the predominant hazard.

2.0.5.4.4

In determining the predominant hazard, the following criteria shall be taken into account:

  1. if one or more constituents fall within a certain class and the waste presents a hazard inherent in these constituents, the waste shall be included in that class; or

  2. if there are constituents falling under two or more classes, the classification of the waste shall take into account the order of precedence applicable to dangerous substances with multiple hazards set out in 2.0.3.

2.0.5.4.5
Wastes harmful to the marine environment only shall be transported under the class 9 entries for ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, LIQUID, N.O.S., UN 3082, or ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S., UN 3077, with the addition of the word "WASTE". However, this is not applicable to substances which are covered by individual entries in this Code.
2.0.5.4.6
Wastes not otherwise subject to the provisions of this Code but covered under the Basel Convention may be transported under the class 9 entries for ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, LIQUID, N.O.S., UN 3082 or ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S., UN 3077 with the addition of the word "WASTE".

Chapter 1.5

Chapter 2.1


  1. UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Dangerous Goods and Special Cargoes Section, Transport Division. Palais des Nations, Bureau 418, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Tel: +41 22 917 24 56, Fax: +41 22 917 00 39. www.unece.org/trans/danger/danger.html.

  2. See also the generic or N.O.S. Proper Shipping Name in appendix A.

  3. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (1989).